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The Shanghai Newly-Built Stadium
Like large umbrellas over the heads of 80,000 spectators, 57 flying mast cable and fabric panel systems fly over the Shanghai stadium. Com-
Revision of Grammar
pleted in October 1997, the stadium cost $200 million and is topped by a $5 million.
The 28,000 m2 of fabric roof rests on 32 steel cantilever trusses that span 21 to 73.5 m, some of the longest in the world. The trapezoidal fabric panels inserted between the trusses are supported by a mast and cables to provide light weight roof.
The trusses are interconnected and stabilized by three rings of steel space trusses. Depending on the length of the trusses, the bays between them consist of one to three fabric panels. The highest point of the roof is 62.5 m; the lowest 31.8 m.
The irregular shape of the roof system required a complex design for the canopy. The designers used numerous computer graphics before completing the structure. The panels are made ofTeflon-coated fibre-glass membrane. They have been produced at the manufacturing plant. The installation of the panels took only eight weeks, six weeks less than it had been planned.
The Shanghai Institute of Architectural Design and Research designed the stadium. The concrete superstructure consists of an underground athletic center and 1,600-space parking garage, a 150,000 m2 event area, 120 luxury seating boxes, and a 280-room hotel. The building and roof were finished in about 20 months, with as many as 3,000 workers on-site at one time.
Punctuation Marks • Знаки препинания
Правила постановки запятых в английском языке отличаются от этих правил в русском языке.
1) для выделения вводных элементов предложения: The use of precast concrete, a progressive construction technique, has advantages over the use of some other building materials.
2) для отделения самостоятельного причастного оборота:
3) для выделения придаточных предложений, если они сооб
The work of the engineer, who designs a project, and the constructor, who builds it, have the same goal - to serve the purpose for which it is built.
4) после обстоятельственного причастного оборота в начале
When tested, the motor broke down.
5) перед словом which, если оно относится не к одному слову, а
New plastic materials had been produced, which led to producing new types of isolation.
6) однородные члены предложения отделяются друг от друга
Modern houses are built of wood, brick, stone, concrete, and plastic.
7) обстоятельство цели, стоящее в начале предложения, отде
То finish the bridge on time, engineers worked on the project almost 24 hours a day.
Запятая не ставится:
1)перед придаточными предложениями:
Devices are classed according to the use they are designed for. Fijitsu transmission systems (Japan) can carry information very effectively. It is done by transmission systems which get it across the city and into the houses.
2) перед союзами but, because, provided, as, since ...:
Revision of Grammar
264. Insert commas where necessary.
1. As properties of materials are universal knowledge of them is necessary for every designer.
2. A stained-glass window is a part of the whole interior ensemble and is not only its separate detail.
3. \fery many towers have been built and are being built and modernized.
4. Sports are practically the same in most countries but some sports are more popular than others in different countries.
5. Baseball is a most popular sport in the USA and cricket is popular in England and Australia.
6. The work has to be stopped between December and March when heavy rain or snow makes it impossible to operate equipment.
7. Though different in design both new connections work equally well. Cracking the disadvantage of other connection designs is totally eliminated.
8. Concrete brick stone and other natural and artificial materials are used for wall construction.
9. The framework carries the loads which are imposed on it.
10. Mortar is a mixture of lime sand and water.
11. Joists are the strong wooden beams which carry the upstairs floors.
12. Stone was a most popular building material in countries where there was not much wood.
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