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WALL AND CEILING FINISH




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  1. CAVOK (Сокращение от CEILING AND VISIBILITY OK)
  2. CEILING

Master the key terms and head words.

finished-обработанный, закон- veneer - однослойная фанера,
ченный искусственные доски

combustion - горение, возгора- to compare - сравнивать
ние

201. Change the combinations. Use the combination 'Inf. + adverb' instead ofthe giv­
en 'adj. + noun'.

Model: cheap production - to produce cheaply

considerable protection___________________________ —----------

easy installation —_________________________ ------

complete elimination —_________________________ .-----

slow combustion —_____________________________

202. Read the terminological combinations. Translate them from Russian.

plasterer — штукатур

comparison method - метод сравнивания combustible mixture - горючая смесь finishing work — окончательная отделка elimination of waste - устранение отходов

203. Give the Russian for:

veneer plaster system gypsum-board installation

plaster-type ceiling finish comparatively cheap installation method

Read and translate the article.

Plaster-type finishes have always been the most popular for walls and ceilings in wood frame buildings. They are comparatively cheap. Usually they are much cheaper than other types of finish. Among their advantages there is also a high degree of fire-resistance that gives considerable protection to the combustible frame. After the Second World Wkr gypsum board became highly popular because of its lower cost and comparative ease of installation.

As to veneer plaster systems, they came into use also not long ago. In most small buildings, all wall and ceiling surfaces are covered with plaster or gypsum board. Some buildings are known to require fire walls, or fire separation walls between living units; in such buildings a gypsum board wall for fire resistance can be installed.

Such an installation eliminates the need to put up a wall of brick or concrete masonry.



Essential Course


Unit Thirteen. Wills



 


204. Translate the following extract in writing. Use a dictionary if necessary.

What is the thickness of block work? The load-bearing walls in single or two-storey housing the minimum thickness of block work is 90 mm. For three-storey housing it is equal to 140 mm. Non-block bearing block partitions may have the minimum of 60 mm.



TABLE VIII Types of Walls

 

interior wall внутренняя стена
exterior w. внешняя с.
smooth w. гладкая с.
dead w. глухая с.
main w. капитальная с.
brick w. кирпичная с.
thick, thin w. толстая, тонкая с.
veneered w. облицованная с.

Read the examples given in the table.

205. Pair work. Let your groupmate translate them a) from English into Russian; b) from Russian into English.

HOW CAN ONE KEEP WATER AWAY FROM THE WALL?

Master the head words.

gravity — тяготение, сила тяжести to penetrate — проникать, про-

face — плоскость, поверхность Питывать

force — сила to seal — закупорить, запереть

206. Read the following combinations. Translate them from Russian.

gravity dam - гравитационная плотина

force of gravity — сила тяжести, земное притяжение

watertight wall — водонепроницаемая стена

air current - воздушный поток


207. Put down the corresponding adjective.

Model: necessarily - necessary

traditionally —_____________________________

carefully —_____________________________



practically —_____________________________

completely -______________________________

Read and translate the article.

When can water penetrate a wall? Three conditions are necessary. Firstly, there must be water present at the outer face of the wall. Secondly, there must be a crack or a hole (opening) in the wall through which the water can move. And thirdly, there must be a force that will move the water through this opening. If any of these conditions is absent, water will not

penetrate a wall.

In what way can one keep water away from the walls of a building? In order to make a wall watertight, one can eliminate all the openings from the wall. That is a traditional method of making walls watertight. Besides, it is necessary to build walls very carefully, sealing every opening, elimi­nating every small hole or crack. One can also eliminate or neutralize all the forces that can move water through the wall and make it penetrable. To these forces belong gravity, surface tension, capillary action, and air cur­rents. 208. Answer the following questions.

1. What three conditions are necessary for water to penetrate a wall?

2. In what way is it possible to make a wall watertight?

3. What forces move water through a wall?

4. Why is it necessary to keep water away from penetrating a wall?


Unit Fourteen

WINDOW

Parti

Master the key terms and head words. у

double — двойной single — единый, один

cased — заключенный в... skylight — потолочное окно

regulations — правила, устав, ин- spring — пружина

струкция to slide — скользить

sash - оконный переплет according to - согласно
shop — мастерская, магазин



209. Read the terminological combinations. Translate them from Russian.

sash bolt — оконная задвижка shop window — витрина sliding sash — раздвижное окно skylight window — окно верхнего света single-sashed window — одностворчатое окно

counter- pre/. — контр-, противо-counteract — противодействовать counter lath — решетина

Combine prefix counter- with the nouns: weight; motion; balance.

210. Add single or double. Translate the examples into Russian.

Model: double-deck bridge - двухъярусный мост

_________________ track — однопутный

_________________ foundation - отдельный фундамент

_________________ house — одноквартирный дом

_________________ window — одностворчатое окно

_________________ level bridge — двухъярусный мост

_________________ way — двухколейная дорога

_________________ screw bolt — болт с двойной нарезкой

211. Choose and put down the proper attributes to the nouns given below.

Attributes: spring, single, airtight, sliding, impenetrable


Unit Fourteen. Window

Nouns: ___________ wire — пружинная проволока

___________ support — пружинная опора

___________ surface — воздухонепроницаемая поверхность

___________ window - непроницаемое окно

___________ house — одноквартирный дом

___________ contact — скользящий контакт

212. Translate the examples into Russian.

a) Mind suffix -abk.

unmovable slabs penetrable surface buildable structure

openable window workable material usable design

b) Mind suffix -ability.

durability, serviceability, workability, buildability 213. Translate the following sentences in writing.

1. Serviceability data will be used for modeling purposes.

2. The ability to produce quality finished ceilings is being considered.

3. The strength and durability of concrete is being constantly increased,

4. The buildability of the structure did not present any high-risk activi­ties other than the normal ones.

Read and translate the article.

/. Civil Engineering, 1998.

Skylight Roofvindo» Fixed Single-hung Double-hung Sliding

Fig. 6

The main functions of windows are light and ventilation. Windows also serve for ornamentation of a building since ancient times. In those faraway days windows were frequently produced in shops. While nowadays windows are mostly produced in factories. What are the necessary components of a window? To these belong glass, frames, and sashes. The area of glass in win­dows of different types is determined according to the regulations. For ex­ample, in a modern housing construction the area of a glass should be equal at least to one length of the floor space. Window frame may be solid or cased


----- _________________ _________ Essential Course


Unit Fourteen. Window



 


frame carrying the sashes. As to sash it is a separate light frame that serves for carrying the window glass.

There exist single-hung and double-hung windows. Both of these types possess one or two moving sashes, securely held in tracks in the frame. Sash­es can be fixed or sliding that slide up and down in tracks in the frame. In order to counterbalance the weight of the sashes, double-hung windows are supplied with a system of special springs. Fixed windows are practically im­penetrable: they do not leak air or water; they are wind-proof. But they have their disadvantages: they can be opened only to not more than theipsize.

Windows may also be placed in roofs. Roof windows may be fixed or openable. Fixed windows are skylights while openable are roof windows. 214.Pair work. Put these questions to your groupmate. Let her Aim answer them.

1. What are the three functions of windows?

2. Where were windows produced in faraway times?

3. Where are windows mostly produced nowadays?

4. What factor determines the area of glass in windows of different types?

5. What should the area of a window glass be equal to?

6. Which part of a window carries the sashes?

7. Which part of a window carries the window glass?

8. How are windows classified nowadays?

9. Do fixed and sliding sashes differ? In what way do they differ?

 

10. What systems are double-hung windows supplied with?

11. What type of windows is impenetrable?

12. Where are skylights placed?

Part 2 MATERIAL FOR WINDOW FRAMES

Master the head words.

condensation- сгущение, кон- to shrink- усыхать, сокращаться

денсация to swell— разбухать, увеличивать-
rubber— резина, каучук ся

215. Read the terminological combinations. Translate them from Russian.

rubber cement — резиновая мастика rubber coating — покрытие резиной condensation water — конденсат


iron waste — железный лом

swell of iron waste — увеличение железного лома

swelling soil — разбухающая почва

shrinking crack — усадочная трещина

216. a) Add prefix re-; translate the words.

Model: new - renew - возобновить

paint -___________________ -_______________________

organize —___________________ —_____________________

open -__________________ -_______________________

heat -____________________ -_______________________

b) Add suffix -able; translate the words.

Model: open - openable - могущий быть открытым

work -__________________ -_______________________

condense —___________________ -_______________________

support -___________________ -_______________________

c) Add suffix -age; translate the words.

Model: use - usage - использование

ton —____________________ —______________________

cover —_________________ —_____________________

217. Translate into Russian.

openable hole workable elements supportable structures

218. Translate the examples into Russian.

usage of plastic coverage rubber coverage of roof

silo tower tonnage shrinkage of wood

219. Read and translate the following questions.

1. What are the traditional frame materials?

2. Does wood, as a structural material, have any disadvantages? What are they if any?

3. Why should wood be regularly repainted?

4. In what way can the flow of cold and heat through aluminum details be prevented?

220. Translate the following word combinations.

relatively expensive and unworkable material _______________

exterior window frame surface __________________________

plastic or synthetic rubber components_____________________



Essential Course


Unit Fifteen


 


Read and translate the article.

The traditional frame material for windows is wood. But in the last decades aluminum, steel, plastic and combination of these materials are also commonly used. Wood is known to be a good thermal insulator and is extremely workable. It is easily turned into sashes. But its disadvantage is that it shrinks and swells when the weather conditions change. That is why wood elements require repainting every few years. As to aluminum, it is relatively inexpensive and easily workable as a sash material. Besides, it requires no periodic repainting. But aluminum should be thermally bro­ken and supplied with plastic or synthetic rubber components in order to prevent the flow of heat or cold through the metal. Aluminum also has its disadvantages. It is known to conduct heat so well that very soon conden­sation will form and even frost on interior window frame surface during cold winter weather.

221. Pair work. Have a talk with your groupmate. Use the questions of Ex. 219.


FLOOR

Master the key terms and head words.

floor — настил, пол, этаж, ярус to follow— следовать за, следить

flooring— деревянный настил to influence— влиять на

combustion — горение, воспламе- to measure - измерять, мерить

нение nozzle — сопло, наконечник, пат-
homogeneous — однородный, го- рубок

могенный reflection- отражение
to deal with... - иметь дело с...

222. Distribute the words into three columns: nouns, adjectives, verbs.

follower, homogeneous, deal with, reflection, arrange, arrangement, noz­zle, combustible

223. a) Form the corresponding adjectives, translate the words.
Model: space - spacious - просторный

danger -___________________ -______________________

homogeny —____________________ —_____________________

pore —___________________ —________ ,____________

b) Form the verbs. Translate the words.

Model: like - подобный to like - уподобиться

hard -____________ to___________ -_____________

light -____________ to___________ -_____________

strength —____________ to___________ —____________

straight —_____________ to___________ —____________

224. Read the combinations. Translate them from Russian,
measuring device - измерительный прибор
poured-in-place floor — наливной пол

like poles — одноименные полюса

hard waste — твердые отходы

225. Choose the proper preposition and fill it in.

on, to, with, among, from, in, of

1. Ceilings and floors belong____ the most important components

_______ any building.

8-6049


hard flooring —_ overturned brick -

Essential Course

2. Acoustics____ the room depends____ the flooring material used.

3. Dark flooring materials influence___ the intensity____ light in

the room.

4. Floors are subject____ moisture and dirt.

5. Floors are designed to deal____ structural loads.

6. One should strictly follow___ instructions and regulations deal­ing the constructional design.

7. When making a poured-in-place floor it is necessary to protect the walls the room splashes.

226. Choose and put down a) the English terms corresponding to the given b) Russian ones.

a) The English terms: space, isolation, installation, mixture, homoge­
neous, timber, tank, tile, mile.

Model: floor space — площадь пола

light-absorbing_______________ —_________________ настил

floor______________________ —_______________ изоляция

floor_____________________ -__________________ плитка

measured_________________ -___________________ миля

measuring_________________ —___________________ бак

light______________________ —______________ установка

construction________________ —____________ дерево (лес)

homogeneous______________ —_________________ смесь

b) Give the English for:

площадь пола —______________________________________

однородная смесь —___________________________________

мерная миля —_______________________________________

плитка для пола —____________________________________

осветительная установка —_____________________________

светопоглощающий настил -
227. a) Name the terminological combinations with the opposite meaning. Model: hard woods - soft woods light weight concrete —__________________________ light industry -________ live load —____________________________________ cheap techniques -_______________________________ low cost -______________ _________________

мерный бак -_______________________________________


Unit Fifteen. Floor

light coloring -________________________________________

hard water -__________________________________________

b) Give the English for:

тяжелая промышленность —__________________________

высокая стоимость —________________________________

жесткая вода -_________________________ ;_____________

мягкие породы дерева —_______________________________

пережженный кирпич —________________________________

228. Read and translate the following questions.

1. What are the main functional components of any modern building?

2. In what way does a hard (soft) flooring influence the acoustics of a room?

3. What flooring materials help create a brighter room?

4. What people's activities are floors subject to?

5. How should floors be designed? What problems should the designers deal with?

Read and translate the article.

Floors belong to one of the most important functional components of a building. Floors influence the acoustics of a room: it depends on wheth­er a hard or soft flooring is used. Floors also react in various ways with light. Some flooring materials are known to produce mirroriike reflection. As to dark flooring materials, they, on the contrary, absorb light and this absorption makes a room darker. As to light materials, they reflect Hght and help create a lighter and brighter room.

Floors are subject to moisture, dirt, and dust. They are also subject to the action of feet and the load of furniture. That is why they require more cleaning and maintenance work than any other components of a building.

It should be taken into account that floors should be designed in such a way as to deal with the problems of sanitation, fire-resistance, and com­bustibility. They should also be designed so as to deal with the structural loads they will place on the frame of the building.


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