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Упражнения. 1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функции «that».

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1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функции «that».

А 1) То be or not to be, that is the question. 2) That's vital for this job. 3) Let me illustrate that for you. 4) I don't want to comment on that. 5) That is a mystery of the Russian soul. 6) That able man was soon appointed the head of the production department. 7) If the government wanted to make the oil companies share their wealth, it could come up with other way to do that. 8) Part of the profit goes to those who have provided the initial capital. 9) Both those who provide capital for a new business and those who run the business bear the risk. 10) Dividends are not paid in those years when the company has not made profit. 11) When we talk about "the national labour force", we are thinking of all those people who are available for work within the nation.

В1) Business people said that London was the most exciting of all the major cities in the world. Londoners also claim that it is cleaner than it used to be, and safer than many other European cities. 2) The Minister of Economic Development and Trade said that the GDP growth in January-May amounted to 7.3 percent. 3) The Economy Ministry forecasts that the second half of the year will see a slowdown in the rate of growth. 4) The government shows that the years of wild capitalism are over. Concentrating on the oil producers the government declares that the oil companies have to pay for the development and growth of the economy and for the well-being of the people. 5) That people speak different languages is generally known. 6) That is rained so much this year is fortunate for farmers. 7) That students got the grade on the quiz surprised everyone. 8) It is essential that they keep accurate records of every transaction. 9) It is necessary that all data should be prepared in time. 10) It is impossible that all these calculations should be made in time.

С 1) A letter that starts Dear Sir or Dear Madam will close with Yours sincerely. 2) Strategies that impress are strategies that are extremely clear. One of the strategies that impresses is Coca-Cola's. 3) We have signed a document that opens a new page in the history of our relations. 4) The oil companies were given a month to prepare new licensing agreements that would stipulate volumes of extraction. 5) The Natural Resources Ministry along with the Federal Security Service (FSB) launched an investigation that will audit the total volume of oil transported inside Russia. 6) The oil companies have to pay for the right to use the country's natural resources that belong to all of the country's citizens. 7) The accounting report that summarizes the revenues and the expenses of an accounting period is called the income statement.

D1) Eleven trade deals between companies from the Far East Federal District and those from China were inked. 2) If a person runs a private business, his work is partly that of an employer and partly that of a worker. 3) Your income is always less than that of some of your neighbors but still it is more than that of some other people both in this country and abroad. 4) The goods sold in the market are of lower quality than those of our company. 5) The European economy of the 2020s will be very different from that of Europe we have known for the last decades. 6) Students studying economics can expect higher earnings than those studying philosophy. 7) These are the requirements for those applying for the post.

E1) Banks keep their money in circulation so that it should bring them profit. 2) Americans keep their money in the bank so that it should breed more money. 3) A bank seeks to buy money cheaply and to sell it dearly. This is what the banks are busy doing. That is why they keep up to date with the market situation.

2. Ответьте на вопросы, используя усилительную конструкцию “it is.. that”.

Example: Who answered the bell, Mary or Floy?

It was Floy whoanswered the bell, not Mary.

1) Did you yourself speak to the assistant professor, or did Margaret speak to him?

2) Oliver must have come from New Zealand, or does he come from Australia?

3) The liner takes off at nine, or will it be earlier?

4) The head master will help us with fixing of the machine tool, or shall we
apply to the consulting engineer?

5) The second point is to be revised, or shall we revise the first point, too?

6) Can Mr. Brown be entrusted with the task, or will it be safer to charge Mrs. Brown with it?

7) Will you go there by sea, or do you prefer a plane?



§ 5 Функции «what», «which»


1 что What do you think about it?

2 то, что What he said confused me.

3 какой (what + сущ.) What colour do you prefer?

Do you know what the weather will be like tomorrow?

What are the conditions of work at this plant?

4 элемент усилительной конструкции what + (s) + V … is

What I need is a rest.

Что мне нужно, так это отдых. (Мне нужен отдых.)

What counts is the end result.

Что действительно важно, так это конечный результат.

NB what is called = what is known as – так называемый

Britain is the centre of what is known as «the sterling area».

What about …? – Как насчет...?

What about you? – А вы?


Примечание 1 «How» так же как и «what» может переводиться на русский язык «то, как».

The problem today is how to coordinate these factors.

Проблема состоит в том, как координировать эти факторы.

how + прилагательное – «насколько»

The following example gives an idea of how important this project is.

Следующий пример дает представление о том, насколько важен этот проект.

Примечание 2 «Which» может переводиться на русский язык словом «что», если придаточное предложение, которое оно вводит, характеризует или дополняет смысл всего главного предложения в целом. В этом случае перед whichвсегда стоит запятая.

We envisage turnover growth in foreign trade and, which is of primary importance, the radical structural changes.

Мы предусматриваем рост внешнеторгового товарооборота и, что особенно важно, коренные структурные изменения.


NB which means – что означает

which implies – что подразумевает

which is due to – что обусловлено

which is characteristic of – что характерно для

which is consistent with – что согласуется с


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