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Упражнения. 1. Составьте из двух предложений одно так, чтобы «it» было его формальным подлежащим, то есть не переводилось.

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1. Составьте из двух предложений одно так, чтобы «it» было его формальным подлежащим, то есть не переводилось.

Example: We can’t get there in time. It’s impossible. – It’s impossible to get there in time.

1) Joint ventures are to be governed by Russian law. It’s obvious.

2) We should not produce goods which are not in high demand. It’s not profitable.

3) You can start up a one-person firm. It is not difficult.

4) One shouldn’t be in debt before one starts business. It is unwise.

5) This business has flourished over the years. It’s not surprising.

6) We could achieve this target. It’s quite realistic.

2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на особенности перевода местоимения «it».

A 1) It was a mistake. 2) It is not my style. 3) It is the world’s number one brand. 4) I am not sure we should do it really. 5) This is how it is done.

В 1) It is not surprising that the collapse in prices led to a severe economic recession. 2) It is necessary to strengthen the banking system mostly through
consolidation of small and medium-sized banks. 3) These days it is useless to invest in this currency. 4) It is undesirable that the rate of unemployment should be over four percent. 5) It would have been impossible to pursue such a policy without a ramified network of local banks.

С1) I don't understand your point. Can you explain it a bit more clearly? 2) The CB announced that it would issue federal loan bonds. 3) As regards the situation nationwide, the government could rectify it by raising export duties. 4) The value of an asset usually means the amount for which it currently could be sold. 5) The stock market crash in the US in 1929 was huge and it led to a severe and lasting economic crisis in the world. 6) The company admitted that it is no longer able to supply the market with its most popular product. 8) The president had set before the government the tough task of bunging down inflation. Can it cope with it?

D 1) It is at the age of 65 that people in many European countries can retire. 2) It was EEC established in 1957 that accounted for 2/5 of the world trade. 3) It is through the Bank of England that the Government's monetary policy is implemented. 4) It is due to such system that the Western economy achieved the results which we admire today. 5) It is the organization of labour at this enterprise that requires improvement first. 6) It is Russia's exporters' and importers' businesses that affect GDP. 7) It is Yukos’ gas assets that interest Gazprom most. 8) It is due to independent auditing that reliable information about financial position of the company has been published. 9) It is due to unlimited liability that the personal assets of the owner, including his home and car, can be sold to settle the debts of the business. 10) In terms of size and influence it is the corporation that has become the dominant business form existing in most countries with free market economy. 11) It was due to the issuing of additional shares that the public company could finance this project.

E 1) The economic resources of an entity are called its assets. 2) This country supported Russia in its bid for membership in the WTO. 3) This price in its dollar equivalent is roughly equal to retail prices in America. 4) This country appears to live according to a strange law: as its economy booms, life becomes harder for its citizens. 5) Dividends that a corporation pays to its shareholders are a distribution of net income. 6) Accounts receivable are amounts owed to the entity by its customers. 7) The Association of Regional Banks, whose name denotes its orientation towards the regions, last year admitted many Moscow banks into its ranks, bringing the share of Moscow banks in its membership to 36%.

F 1) I find it strange that she does not want to travel. She finds it boring. She finds it boring to stay at home. 2) New technology will make it possible to enter new markets. 3) It was planned to double national income and the industrial output. 4) It will take over a year to learn how to run a business.

3. Определите функцию «it», предложения переведите.

1) How do they do it year after year growing more profitable? 2) It’s a question of finding the right market for a product. People have to expect it, and even demand it. 3) It is a sad story because it involves an outflow rather than inflow of capital into the country. 4) It is much wiser to allow cash to circulate, either to invest it or to have it in the bank, where it makes interest. 5) It was IBM who set the standard for the PC which others later imitated. 6) It is no secret that the gasoline crisis was due to a sharp reduction in the supplies of crude oil to the refinery. 7) According to marketing theory you first ascertain want or need and then create a product to satisfy it. 8) If you have a bank branch near your home, you may find it convenient to go there to draw your money out. 9) When it was time to repay, bank sent its clients a notification.10) It was planned to reduce maintenance costs. 11) This contract is not valid until it is signed by both parties. 12) It was Saturday October 6, 1979 – the key day in the history of the Federal Reserve System. It was on that day that the decision was made to cardinally change its functions.

4. Назовите слово или словосочетание, которое заменяет местоимение «it».

Example: It’s very interesting. I’ve just read Chapter 1! A book / a novel

1) I like it dry and white.

2) I don’t take it in tea, but I take one spoonful in coffee.

3) It barked and ran away.

4) You study at it to get higher education.

5) You can open an account with it.

6) It is the type of business when one person provides all the capital.

7) It is the means by which firms or individuals make known to the market what they have to sell, or what they want to buy.

8) It helps the marketer to determine to determine customer needs.

9) The company is run by it. It consists of a number of Directors.

10) It is the market place where listed securities can be traded efficiently.


§ 4 Функции «that»

The Functions of «that»

Функции Перевод Примеры
указательное местоимение мн. число - those (э)то, тот, та те Thatyear was very successful. Thoseyears were also successful.
союз что I think that companies are part of society.
то, что That the Loch Ness monster exists has not been proved.
чтобы They should act in such a way thata company is profitable.
относительное местоимение который Sometimes you have to do things that you don’t like.
заместитель сущ. ед. числа мн. число - those сущ-м, которое заменяет The problem for the country was that of liquidity.   The prices are lower than those on the world market are.
часть усилительной конструкции ’it is … that’ не переводится It is for those studying English thatthe MN reprints foreign press.

Запомните, как переводятся следующие словосочетания с «that»:

that is (i.e.) so that now that the more so that so much that that/this is why that/this is how that/this is what the fact/thing/point is that the main thing is that the most important thing is that то есть так, чтобы; с тем, чтобы теперь, когда тем более, что настолько, что вот почему вот как вот что дело в том, что главное то, что самое важное это то, что


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