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1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения:
Federal Court of Appeal
Court of last resort
Minor trial court
Major trial court
To be appointed for life
2. Дополните следующие предложения:
1. The American court is complex, mainly because of …
2. The state’s minor trial courts have various names: justice courts …
3. Federal courts are also organized in three tiers: …
4. … are appointed for life.
5. The decisions of the Supreme Court are …
3. Выполните следующий тест:
1. The structure of state courts:
a) Are fixed in all states
b) Varies from state to state
c) Are not complex
2. The state’s minor trial courts are called:
a) The courts of last resort
b) Circuit courts
c) Justice courts, small-claim courts, police courts, traffic courts, municipal courts, mayors’ courts
3. Federal courts are organized in:
a) Two tiers
b) One tier
c) Three tiers
4. All federal judges are appointed for:
b) Two months
c) Ten years
5. The district courts are:
a) The highest ones
b) The lowest ones
c) Intermediate appellate ones
4. Переведите следующий отрывок из текста:
Federal courts are also organized in three tiers, like a pyramid: district courts, courts of appeals and the Supreme Court. All federal judges are appointed for life.
There are about ninety four district courts in different parts of the United States. The district courts are the lowest ones in the Federal court system. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts. The district court is the only Federal court where trials are held, juries are used, and witnesses are called. There are about two hundred district judges in the USA.
All cases resolved in the district courts and all decisions of federal administrative agencies can be appealed to one of the thirteen federal circuit courts. There are no jurors, witnesses, cross-examinations and other features of the trial courts here. The judges sit in panels made up of three judges each, examining rulings made and procedures followed in the trial courts.
For most cases the circuit courts are the end of the line, but in some cases an appeal may be made to the highest court in the land: the U.S. Supreme Court.
5. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. In what way are federal courts organized in the USA?
2. How many district courts are there in the USA?
3. What cases are tried by district courts?
4. What cases can be appealed to federal circuit courts?
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