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Test IV




1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения:

Statute

Common law and Equity

Judgement

Magistrate

To try

County

Crown court

Jury

Written law

Lay magistrate

2. Дополните следующие предложения:

1. There are four countries and three separate system of law in the United Kingdom: …

2. Common law is based on …

3. The Crown court deals with all …

4. The accused have a right …

5. Ten judges in the House of Lords are …

3. Выполните следующий тест:

1. There are some common features of law in the United Kingdom:

a) Acts of Parliament

b) The sources of law and the distinctions between civil and criminal law

c) Judgments

2. The sources of law include:

a) Written law and unwritten law

b) Judicial precedent

c) Judgments

3. The lowest courts are:

a) County courts

b) Crown court

c) Magistrates’ courts

4. County courts are the main :

a) Civil courts

b) Criminal courts

c) The district court

5. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by:

a) Policemen

b) District courts

c) Government officials

4. Переведите следующий отрывок из текста:

The American court system is complex, mainly because of the federal system of government in the USA. Each state runs its own court system, and no two are identical. In addition, there is a separate system of federal courts, which operates alongside the state courts.

The structure of state courts varies from state to state. Usually there are minor trial courts for less serious cases, major trial courts for more serious cases, intermediate appellate courts and courts of last resort. The state’s minor trial courts have various names: justice courts, small-claim courts, traffic courts, police courts, municipal courts, mayors’ courts. The judges in these courts are usually quite professional, but some states still have Justices of the Peace – men and women who have never gone to law school and never taken the bar exam.

The next level of the pyramid is made up of state’s courts of general jurisdiction, which are the basic trial courts. These courts hear civil cases involving larger amounts of money than in minor trial courts. They also handle cases of serious crime, such as burglary, rape and murder. The judges are always lawyers.



5.Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. Why is the American court system complex?

2. What are the main courts in the USA?

3. What are the various names of the state’s minor trial courts?

4. Who works at the state’s minor trial courts?

Test V

1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения:

Major trial court

State courts

To be appointed for life

Sources of law

Written Law

Judge

Civil Law

Magistrates’ court

Civil case

Original jurisdiction

US Courts of Appeal

Government

Signed opinions

2. Дополните следующие предложения:

1. The lowest courts are called …

2. Magistrates’ courts are presided over by …

3. Court of Appeal hears …

4. The American court is complex, mainly because of …

5. The state’s minor trial courts have various names: justice courts …

3. Выполните следующий тест:

1. Common Law is based on:

d) Personal opinion of a judge

e) Judicial precedent

f) On the Queen’s opinion

2. Central Criminal Court of London is known as:

d) Supreme Court

e) Old Bailey

f) Crown Court

3. The state’s minor trial courts are called:



d) The courts of last resort

e) Circuit courts

f) Justice courts, small-claim courts, police courts, traffic courts, municipal courts, mayors’ courts

4. Federal courts are organized in:

d) Two tiers

e) One tier

f) Three tiers

5. All federal judges are appointed for:

d) Life

e) Two months

f) Ten years

6. Some states have Justices of the Peace - :

d) Men and women who have never taken bar exams

e) Lawyers of high qualification

f) Senior pupils

4. Переведите следующий отрывок из текста:

The sources of law include written law (statutes, Acts of Parliament) and unwritten law (Common law and Equity). Common law is based on judicial precedent. It means that when one judge had decided a point of law, any other judge who has the similar set of facts must decide case in the same way as in the earlier judgment.

The lowest courts are called Magistrates’ courts, or police courts. Magistrates’ courts are presided over by Justices of the Peace (JP), or lay magistrates. They work part-time and are unpaid. The courts consist of between two to seven magistrates.

The Crown court deals with all more serious criminal cases. Appeals from Magistrates’ courts are also heard there. The accused have the right to be tried by the jury.

County courts are the main civil courts. The High court hears all those civil cases that cannot be decided by county courts.

5. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What does the sources of law include?

2. What courts are the lowest ones?

3. What cases does the Crown court deal with?

4. Does the Court of Appeal hear both criminal and civil cases?


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