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I. Вспомните основные модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Чем они отличаются? Как спрягаются? (Заполните табличку).

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Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты Значение Present Past Future
1. can возможность совершения действия      
to be able to      
2. may      
to be allowed to      
3. must долженствование      
to have to      
to be to      
should      
ought to      
to be obliged to      

II. Подчеркните модальные глаголы и переведите предложения на русский язык:

 

1. Thus two events may be found to be associated. 2. The greatest care must be exercised in order to eliminate errors. 3. Emotion in the observer can be one of the most dangerous sources of error. 4. Insufficient observations may possibly lead to false generalizations. 5. Faulty equipment can produce disturbing effects in a research. 6. Logical thought should be used in developing new theories. 7. The project was so expensive that it could not be continued. 8. In planning a series of experiments, the scientific worker ought to be aware of the general nature of the problem. 9. This procedure might often help to solve the problem more efficiently.

 

III. Подчеркните модальные глаголы и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. With the aid of radar, passenger liners or freighters can navigate accurately and safely through crowded waters at any time. 2. Using radioactive isotopes, biologists and agriculturalists will be able to carry out research impossible by any other method. 3. Thus we were obliged to use gaseous heavy hydrogen for our experiments. 4. We shall have to work out an experiment in which we shall be able to keep the particles in the plasma, that is, deprive them of the possibility of transmitting the heat to the walls of the container. 5. The compass used by a pilot has to be small and light in weight. 6. The wire used should have as large a cross-section as possible when it is desirable to keep resistance as low as possible. 7. Thus the second condition for equilibrium is that the tendency to rotate should be zero. 8. According to the law of conservation of energy, the energy spent in starting the body must be equal to that derived from the body when it is stopped. 9. You ought to know that the term equilibrium applies equally well to a motor car speeding along a straight road at a constant speed of, say, 95 km/hr.



 

IV. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, определив форму инфинитива после модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов:

1. The distance that an automobile may be driven without refueling is usually expressed in terms of miles and depends upon the terrain, condition of the roads and the speed at which the car is to be driven. 2. Since all meridians and the equator are great circles, the minute scales of these elements of the map may be used to measure lengths. 3. To detect the very weak radio signals a directional antenna and a highly sensitive radio receiver must be used. 4. It should be noted that in all cases the shape of the coil must be such as to conform closely to the general outline of the part to be heated. 5. The two units of power – the horsepower and the kilowatt may be used to define the two units of work – the horsepower hour and kilowatt hour. 6. The two ends cannot have had the same polarity. 7. Higher launch speed must have had a twofold effect on reducing the required power. 8. When a varying plate current flew through a coil a varying magnetic field created could have caused self-induction. 9. Heat must be dissipated by all electrical conductors when they are carrying current. 10. Parts for this submarine could not be ordered; they had to be designed, nothing could be copied from another ship’s engine, for this was the first of its kind. 11. Landing lights should be installed on an aeroplane to provide sufficient illumination in case of forced landing at points other than lighted airports.



 


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