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II. Выберите предложения, в которых встречается 1) герундий и 2) причастие, и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Numbers can be multiplied by repeated addition, by adding and shifting or by using multiplication tables.
2. A steam engine uses steam made by the fuel having been burnt outside the engine.
3. Most of nuclear reactors are installations usually consisting of the following elementary parts.
4. The next question of the discussion is making a programme for the computer.
5. Of course we are limited today by computer size and especially by our understanding of what we try to model.
6. Adding numbers is the easiest process in the system of calculation.
7. A new computer will be used for all types of data processing and scientific data handling.
8. Having made a great number of experiments with different devices the research group chose the best one for practical work.
9. Having more input units reduces the number of sorting passes but increases the number of computer comparisons and other operations on each pass.
10. New technical developments have occurred for processing educational material in the classroom.
III. Определите функцию герундия и переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. Pulling a rubber band increases its length.
2. The second effect of increasing the magnet current is to increase the field strength at every point.
3. The rheostat is usually equipped with one switch designed for changing the length of the resistance wire through which the current must pass.
4. Representing the electric field by means of these lines helps us to picture the forces between the charged bodies.
5. On entering the lens the rays are bent toward the normal as before and on leaving they are bent away from the principal axis.
6. Measuring the temperature of the dew point is the most accurate method of determining relative humidity.
7. The usual method of altering the frequency is to include in the oscillator circuit a variable condenser.
8. Radar is used in finding the position of a target with respect to a fixed point on the ground.
9. There are two common methods for measuring angular velocity.
10. We discussed motion of rotation about a fixed axis without inquiring into the “causes” of the motion.
11. When a helical spring is stretched, the actual distortion of the wire is a combination of stretching, bending and torsion.
IV. Определите форму и функцию герундия и переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. Charging by induction will be discussed in the next article.
2. The chain reaction releases great quantities of ϒ-radiation and neutrons which must be prevented from escaping into the atmosphere.
3. He remembered once having read that at very low temperatures some metals become super-conducting, having practically zero specific resistance.
4. These electrons are attracted by the positive charge which the plate has as a result of having been connected to the plus terminal of a battery.
5. Discussing the term “work” in detail is the subject of our next article, for we know of its being often misused.
6. In spite of its having been compressed, the gas returns to its original volume as soon as the applied force is removed.
7. Acquiring knowledge is not in itself sufficient, you must also practice the art of applying this knowledge to problems you meet with.
8. In making Bessemer steel, molten iron direct from the blast furnace is poured into the converter.
9. We know of the electric furnace being an ideal melting and refining unit for the steel industry.
10. Protecting the personal against radioactive radiation holds an important place in the scheme of things at the atomic power plant.
11. Experiment has shown that the opposition of a body to being set in translation is proportional to the mass of the body and does not depend on anything else.
V. Подчеркните сложные герундиальные обороты и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:
1. We heard of different experiments having been carried out by our students.
2. Computer’s being used for solving many business problems makes its use almost boundless.
3. We know of the computer center being equipped with most up-to-date means of computation.
4. His having developed a very complicated piece of apparatus made him well-known among the scientists of his country.
5. They insisted on the experiment being made to study single stars in detail.
6. It is reported of the spacecraft including a 40-watt primary transmitter, a receiver and two directional parabolic antennas.
7. It is known of their working at the problem under discussion.
8. His having carried out investigation of the substances of organic origin which could be used to stimulate plant growth is a well-known fact.
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