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I. Describe the piston work looking at Fig. 7.1.

II. Using Figs. 7.2 and 7.3 tell about the processes which make up the compression cycle ofa reciprocating compressor.

Lesson B. Translation Practice

Meanings of the words for, since, both, both... and, neither... nor

I. Translate the sentences. Mind the meanings of "for":

1)"оскільки" (якщо стоїть перед підметом)

2) "для", "в ході", або не перекладається зовсім (коли стоїть перед обставинами)

1. For a long time the internal combustion engine was the only type of engine used for aircraft.

2. For most scientific researches special laboratories and instruments are required.

3. Our teachers and scientific workers are developing a program for the improvement of secondary, special and higher education.

II. Translate the sentences. Remember the meanings of "both":

1) both— займенник "обидва"

2) both... and— "як ... так і"


1. Liquids and gases are both fluids.

2. Solids have both definite volume and definite shape.

3. Both heavy industry and light industry are necessary for the development of any country.

4. Both the Carnot cycle and the standard cycle involve the processes of compression and expansion.

III. Translate the sentences with the word "since", which has the following meanings:"оскільки", "з", "з тих пір як".

1. Since the first refrigerators appeared many changes have taken place in the field of refrigeration.

2. Since the sun is a powerful source of energy, scientists try to use its heat for people needs.

3. We haven't seen each other since the day we left school.

4. Since both the condenser and the evaporator are heat exchangers, they have certain features in common.

IV. Pay attention to the meanings of "neither", "nor", "neither... nor" and translate the sentences:

1) neither (adj.) — ніякий, ні один

2) neither (cj.) — також не

3) nor (cj) — також не

4) neither... nor — ні... (ані)


1. Neither the Carnot cycle nor the standard cycle can be reproduced with actual equipment.

2. Neither he nor his wife speak English / Neither of them speak English.

3. Neither spare parts could be used for the machine.

4. The device cannot be used in this case. — Neither can the instrument. / Nor can the instrument.

V. Study the meanings of "either", "either... or" and translate the sentences:

1) either ... or або ... або

2) not either (у негативному реченні) також не

3) either of — обидва


1. Either the device must be repaired or it must be replaced.

2. Clearly, students in either of the engineering branches for which the tables of measurements were written will have little difficulty in using the figures and symbols relating to their own specialization.

3. "I haven't met these phenomena before". "I haven't met them either".

Text for translation:


In the designing of a refrigerating system, one of the most important considerations is that of establishing the proper relationship or "balance" between the vaporizing and condensing sections of the system. It is important to recognize that whenever an evaporator and a condensing unit are connected together in a common system, a condition of equilibrium or "balance" is automatically established between the two such that the rate of vaporization is always equal to the rate of condensation. That is, the rate at which the vapor is removed from the evaporator and condensed by the condensing unit is always equal to the rate at which the vapor is produced in the evaporator by the boiling action of the liquid refrigerant. Since all the components in a refrigerating system are connected together in series, the refrigerant flow rate through all components is the same. It follows, therefore, that the capacity of all the components must be of necessity the same.

Obviously, then, where the system components are selected to have equal capacities at the system design conditions, the point of system equilibrium or balance will occur at the system-design conditions. On the other hand, when the components selected do not have equal capacities at the system design conditions, system equilibrium will be established at operating conditions other than the system design conditions and the system will not perform satisfactorily.

In any event, it is important to understand that, regardless of the equipment selected, the system will always establish equilibrium at some conditions such that all the system components will have equal capacity. Hence, whether or not system equilibrium is established at the system design conditions depends entirely upon whether or not the equilibrium is selected to have approximately equal capacities at the system design conditions.

Notes: in series — послідовно

the refrigerant flow rate — швидкість потоку


component — вузол

operating conditions — умови роботи

regardless of — незважаючи на

Lesson C. Speech Practice


draft /'dra:ft/ начерк

contract /'kontrækt/ угода, контракт

deal угода,

to deal (dealt) with мати справу з

to make a proposal /prə'pouzəl/ зробити пропозицію

condition /kən'di∫n/ умова

mission /'mi∫n/ місія

representative /ripri'zentətiv/ представник

I'm a representative of ... Я представник ...

Here is my visiting card Ось моя візитна картка

Branch /'bra:nt∫/ філіал, філія

to handle business вести справу

party /'pa:ti/ сторона (на переговорах)

to consider розглядати

to fulfil /ful'fil/ виконувати

to insist on /in'sist/ наполягати на

to look forward to чекати з приємністю

successful /sək'sesful/ успішний

formal /'fo:məl/ офіційний

to induce /in'dju:s/ спонукати

to gain popularity набути популярності

On what conditions will you agree? За яких умов ви дасте згоду?

As far as I am concerned... Що до мене...

in detail докладно

to sign /'sain/ підписувати

signature /'signit∫ə/ підпис

seal печатка

to enter into an agreement укладати угоду

profitable /'profitəbl/ вигідний

negotiation(s) /ni,gou∫i'ei∫n/ переговори

Our product / equipment meets Наша продукція / обладнання

the world up-to-date requirements відповідає останнім світовим


We are interested in your product. Ми зацікавлені у вашій


We'd like to restore the ties with your firm. Ми б хотіли відновити зв'язки з

вашою фірмою.

null and void втративший чинність


Read and translate the text:


The text of any contract begins with the number of the Contract, the place and date of its signing and the names of the parties. Then comes the terms and conditions of the Contract. The essential part of the Contract is the Consideration. It is the cause that induces parties to make the contract. The Consideration is followed by the full statement of all that both parties agree to do. The latter is written in detail in the paragraphs of the Contract.

The Contract ends with signatures and seals of the parties and witnesses.

After the Contract has been signed all the previous negotiations and documents relating to it become null and void.



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