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II. Find in the text of the lesson terminological word-combinations consisting of two or more components. Translate them into Ukrainian.

III. Give the plurals of the following nouns:

medium, basis, datum, phenomenon, nucleus, minimum, analysis, thesis, apparatus, maximum, curriculum, addendum.

IV. Finish the sentences:

1. There are three possible modes of heat transfer...

2. Today in general use there are three temperature scales: ...

3. In the refrigerating machines the following processes take place: ...

4. Evaporation, condensation and sublimation are the processes in ...

5. Evaporators and condensers are ...

6. Four components of a vapor-compression system are ...


IF-CLAUSES. Умовні речення.

Умовні речення — це складнопідрядні речення, в яких підрядні речення умови вводяться за допомогою сполучників if (якщо), provided (that) (за умовою, що), unless (якщо не), in case (на випадок).

В англійській мові існують три типи умовних речень: 1) речення, що виражають реальну можливість виконання дії, 2) речення, що виражають маловірогідну можливість дії, 3) речення, що виражають нереальну можливість дії.

І. Умовні речення першого типу. Можливість дії реальна.

головне речення підрядне умовне речення
присудок у Future Indefinite присудок у Present Indefinite



e.g. I'll finish the work soon if you help me.

Я швидко закінчу роботу, якщо ти мені допоможеш.

If I see him, I'll give him your hello.

Якщо я побачу його, я передам йому твій привіт.

II. Умовні речення другого типу. Маловірогідна можливість дії. Дія таких речень може відноситися до теперішнього чи майбутнього часів

головне речення підрядне умовне речення
присудок: should / would / could / might + Indefinite Infinitive без частки to форма присудка збігається з формою дієслова у Past Indefinite дійсного способу



e.g. If your documents were ready, you could leave at once. Якщо твої документи були б готові, то ти б міг поїхати відразу.

If I had money, I would lend it to you. Якщо б у мене були гроші, то я б позичив їх тобі. III. Умовні речення третього типу. Нереальна можливість дії. Дія речень третього типу

відноситься до минулого часу.

головне речення підрядне умовне речення
присудок: should / would / could / might + Perfect Infinitive без частки to форма присудка збігається з формою дієслова у Past Perfect дійсного способу



e.g. If he had entered the University, he would have become a chemist (але цього не сталося). Якщо б він поступив до університету, то став би хіміком.

If the machine hadn't been broken, we would have worked at it. Якщо б машина не була зламана, ми б працювали на ній.


I. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian. Define the types of the Conditionals:

1. If he had come in time, this couldn't have happened.

2. In case he failed the exams, he would be excluded from the institute.

3. If one burnt 1 lb. of fuel and all the heat produced were used in heating water, it would be possible to increase the temperature of about 8 1/2 tons of water by 1°F.

4. If our Sun were far enough from us, it would look like a star.

5. If some means could be devised to convert the energy in fuels into work without the intermediate generation of heat, conversion efficiency could be considerably improved.

6. Provided the article were published, the author would get fee.

7. The peasants would not have gathered such crops, unless they had got all the necessary machines.

8. The Polar explorers wouldn’t have moved to another place, unless the ice had cracked.

9. If I were in your place I should start my work at once.

10.In case we had lost our way, in the city, we would have asked passers-by.

11.Provided the motor-car has a powerful engine it can move with great speed.

12.If you had applied your theoretical knowledge to your practical work you would have got a different result.

13.If the students had been more careful during the experiment they would not have broken the instrument.

14.If you study hard, you will know your subject well.

15.If you raise the temperature the water will evaporate.

16.If a body loses heat, this heat will transfer into energy.

17.We would have written the report if we had known about the conference beforehand.

18.You would be able to find a better job if you knew English.

19.We would have bought a car if we had more money.

20.If you read articles on your speciality you would know the subject much better.

II. Put in the correct verb-forms:

1. If you (to feel) ill, you should have visited the doctor.

2. If the bar magnet were broken into two, it (to retain) its magnetism.

3. If the Earth neither rotated nor revolved, one side always (to have) day and the other side always (to have) night.

4. Life couldn't exist on the Earth if there (to be) not heat and light radiating from the Sun.

5. What would you do if you (to win) a million pounds?

6. I would be very grateful if you (to help) me with the translation.

7. If he stopped smoking, he (to recover) soon.

8. It's raining cats and dogs. You will get wet if you (to go out) without umbrella.

9. If he gets the job, I (to be) very glad.

10. If the computer reaches a place with one batch (файл) of data where it can link the data to storage, printers or other devices, the computer (to begin) to process another batch.

Read and translate the following text:


When two bodies are at different temperatures, heat will always flow from the warmer to the colder. There are three possible modes of heat transfer:

1. Radiation

2. Conduction

3. Convection

Radiation takes place between bodies separated by a medium such as air, which is permeable to radiation. When a body loses heat by radiation, this heat is transformed into radiant energy. When the radiant energy meets another body, part of its is converted back into heat.

Conduction takes place within a medium or between different media in contact with one another.

Some substances, e.g. metals are good conductors of heat, other substances, particularly porous materials of low density, are poor conductors.

Heat transfer by convection takes place between a flowing medium and a fixed wall, or between two flowing media. A special form of convective heat transfer occurs when the flowing medium changes state, as steam in a condenser.

The above-mentioned modes of heat transfer seldom appear as isolated phenomena; in general all three are present. A hot body loses heat to the surroundings by radiation, conduction and convection, and not by one mean only. Again, when heat is transferred from a fluid to a wall and given up to another fluid on the other side, there is a combination of modes of heat transfer.

Answer the questions:

1. What are the possible modes of heat transfer?

2. What is radiation?

3. Can you describe heat transfer by conduction?

4. How does heat transfer by convection take place?

5. Can you name the substances which are good conductors of heat?

6. Do you know the substances which are poor conductors of heat?


Lesson B. Translation Practice



заміщувачі іменника

one (ones)

this (these)

that (those)

do заміщувачі дієслова


the former (попередній) the latter (останній)


той (ті)

цей (вони)

той (ті)

вживається у відповідній формі та часі вживається замість інфінітива заміщувачі іменника


Translate the following sentences:

1. Centrifugal pumps are divided into two general classes: 1) volume pumps and 2) turbine pumps. In the former the impeller is surrounded by a spiral case, the outer boundary of which may be a curve called a volute.

2. Centrifugal pumps are also divided into single-suction pumps and double-suction pumps .The latter have the advantage of symmetry, which ideally should eliminate end thrust.

3. Some of the wastes from nuclear reactors include valuable radio isotopes .These are radioactive forms of elements which were made "hot" in reactors.

4. He doesn't speak German, but his wife does.

5. The density of oxygen is about one seven-hundredth that of water.

6. We shall use this new method of investigation instead of that one.

7. "Would you like to learn more foreign languages?" — "I'd like to, but I have no time".


Безсполучникове умовне речення легко розпізнати за порядком слів. В таких реченнях на першому місті стоїть допоміжне дієслово should / were / had. Переклад таких речень треба починати словами "якщо б", "якщо"

Translate the following sentences:

1. Had I had time yesterday, I would have typed these documents.

2. Should the refrigerator stopped working, the mechanic will repair it.

3. Were the data on the problem available, the students wouldn't do any mistakes in calculations.

Text for translation:


Liquid pumps used in the refrigerating industry to circulate chilled water or brine, and the condenser water are usually of the centrifugal type.

A centrifugal pump consists mainly of a rotating vane-type impeller that is enclosed in a stationary casing. The liquid being pumped is drawn in through the "eye" of the impeller and is thrown to the outer edge or periphery of the impeller by centrifugal force. Considerable velocity and pressure are imparted to the liquid in the process. The liquid leaving the periphery of the impeller is collected in the casing and directed through the discharge opening.

Frequently, the impeller of the pump is mounted directly on the shaft of the pump-driving motor so that the pump and motor are an integral unit. In other cases, the pump and motor are separate units and are connected together by a flexible coupling.

In general, the capacity of a centrifugal pump depends on the design and size of the pump and on the speed of the motor. For a pump of specific size and speed, the volume of liquid handled varies with the pumping head against which the pump must work. The pumping head is maximum when the valve on the discharge of the pump is closed, at which time the pump delivery is zero. As the valve is opened, the pumping head decreases and the deliver rate increases.

Centrifugal pumps are rated in gpm of delivery at various pumping heads, that is, centrifugal
pumps are rated to deliver a certain gpm against a certain pumping head.
Notes: vane — лопать

impeller — крильчатка

stationary casing — нерухомий корпус

outer edge — зовнішній край

an integral unit — єдиний агрегат

a flexible coupling — пружна муфта

pumping head — напір

on the discharge — на стороні нагнітання

Lesson C.

Speech Practice


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