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English equivalents. 1. The work / paper / book / article consists of
1. The work / paper / book / article consists of ... chapters and is devoted to the analysis of
2. The first chapter / part deals with the short history of the problem...
3. The role and importance ... are characterized
4. Firstly... Secondly... Thirdly...
5. The second chapter / part endeavours to clear up ...
6. The next chapter discovers ...
7. The meaning / importance of ... is examined.
8. The study is completed by figures and tables.
9. The author goes on to examine / to discover / to discuss...
10. In the author's opinion...
11. The author considers / concludes / points out ...
12. Evaluating ..., the conclusion can be drawn that...
13. The author warns that...
14. At the end of the article the author sums up / makes conclusions that ...
15. The author summarizes the results of ...
I. Write down a summary of the following text:
Dehydration,one of the principal factors limiting the storage life of frozen foods, is greatly reduced by proper packaging. Unpackaged products are subject to serious moisture losses not only during the freezing process but also during the storage period. While in storage, unpackaged frozen products lose moisture to the air continuously by sublimation. This eventually results in a condition known as "freezer-burn", giving the product a white, leathery appearance. Freezer-burn is usually accompanied by oxidation, flavor changes, and loss of vitamin content.
With few exceptions, all products are packaged before being placed in frozen storage. Although most products are packaged before freezing, some, such as loose frozen peas and lima beans, are packaged after the freezing process.
To provide adequate protection against dehydration and oxidation, the packaging material should be practically 100% gas and vapor proof and should fit tightly around the product to exclude as much air as possible. Too, air spaces in packages have an insulating effect which reduce the freezing rate and increase freezing costs.
The fact that frozen products are in competition to products preserved by other methods introduces several factors which must be taken into account when selecting packaging materials. When the products to be sold directly to the consumer, the package must be attractive and convenient to use in order to stimulate sales. From a cost standpoint, the package should be relatively inexpensive and of such a nature that it permits efficient handling so as to reduce processing costs.
Some packaging materials in general use are aluminium foil, tin cans, impregnated paper board cartons, paper-board cartons over-wrapped with vapor-proof wrappers, wax paper, cellophane, polyethylene, and other sheet plastics.
Frozen fish are often given an ice glaze (a thin coating of ice) which provides an excellent protective covering. However, since the ice glaze is very brittle, glazed fish must be handled carefully to avoid breaking the glaze. Too, since the ice glaze gradually sublimes to the air, the fish must be reglazed approximately once a month by dipping into fresh water or by spraying.
II. While writing a summary in English of any text proposed by your teacher, mind the following:
1.A good summary should contain:
1) a brief summary of the argument, or at least the main conclusions,
2) a clear statement of the writer's point of view
3. A summary is very brief in comparison to the essay.
Lesson C. Speech Practice
ODESA STATE ACADEMY OF REFRIGERATION
Odessa State Academy of Refrigeration is the unique in Ukraine specialized higher educational establishment. It has been functioning since 1922 when it was founded.
The Academy amounts about 3,000 students trained by a highly qualified pedagogical staff. Among the lecturers of the educational establishment there are academicians and professors who regularly take part in International Conferences and Congresses. Scientific research and close relations with the world's leading firms give opportunity to use the latest achievements of science in teaching.
Today Odessa State Academy of Refrigeration comprises three institutes: Low-Temperature Engineering and Technology, Energetics and Ecology and the Institute of Distant Education and the Faculty of Information Technologies.
At these institutes students master programming, computer-aided design, robotics, energy-saving carriers and their technology, learn to solve environmental problems and some actual tasks of refrigerating and cryogenic engineering, thermophysics and air-conditioning.
Two forms of training (full-time and by correspondence) last 5 and 6 years, respectively. School leavers are admitted after passing the competitive entrance examinations.
Students are provided with hostel accommodation, sport and recreation facilities. The computing center and numerous laboratories well-equipped with up-to-date apparatuses and devices, the large library are at the student's disposal.
The academic year is divided into two terms. During the terms students attend lectures and classes, do laboratory works. Subjects of general education: mathematics, physics, chemistry, theoretical mechanics, students study doing the first and second years. Three foreign languages are taught at the Academy: English, French and German. Special departments deliver lectures and lead seminars on theory of processes, machines, refrigerating and cryogenic installations, the fundamentals of designing, operation of vapour compression refrigerating machines, air-conditioning installations, fundamentals of heat-and-mass transfer, resistance theory, hydro and gas dynamics, thermophysical properties of refrigerants, insulating and lubricating materials, etc.
At the end of each term students take credit tests and examinations. The whole course of the students' theoretical and practical training according to the curriculum is completed by taking final examinations in special subjects and defence of diploma projects.
Graduates receive degrees of Bachelors (B.Sc.) after 4 years of study, and Masters (M.Sc.) after 5 years. Those, who want to continue their studies, can do a post-graduate course which takes 3 years.
Notes: unique /ju:'ni:k/ унікальний
at (smb's) disposal у розпорядженні
department кафедра, відділ, факультет
lubricating materials мастильні матеріали
environmental problems проблеми навколишнього середовища
curriculum /kə'rikjuləm/ навчальний план, програма
diploma projects дипломні проекти