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II. Describe the work of a bulb-type temperature sensing element and bimetal element usingFigs. 10.1, 10.2 and 10.3




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  7. MEASURING TEMPERATURE.
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Normal Warmer Colder

a) b) c)

Fig. 10.3 Bimetal-type temperature sensing element

Lesson B. Translation Practice

MEANINGS OF THE WORDS WITH SUFFIXES -WISEAND-PROOFЗНАЧЕННЯ СЛІВ З СУФІКСАМИ-WISEAND-PROOF

I. Translate the adverbs with suffix — wise, using the following scheme:

clockwise how?in what direction?за стрілкою годинника broadwise, chordwise, lengthwise, likewise, otherwise, sidewise, spanwise.

II. Translate the adjectives with suffix -proof, mind its meanings: "непроникний",

"захищений", "стійкий (тривкий)".

airproof, acidproof, explosionproof, fireproof, foolproof, gasproof, shockproof, waterproof.

Translate the following text:

PRESSURE ACTUATED CYCLING CONTROLS

Pressure actuated cycling controls are of two types: (1) low-pressure actuated and (2) high-pressure actuated. Low-pressure controls are connected to the low-pressure side of the system (usually at the compressor suction) and are actuated by the low-side pressure. High-pressure controls, on the other hand, are connected to the high-pressure side of the system (usually at the compressor discharge) and are actuated by the high-side pressure.

The design of both the low-pressure and the high-pressure controls is similar to that of the remote-bulb thermostat. The principal difference between remote-bulb thermostat and the pressure controls is the source of the pressure which actuates the bellows or diaphragm. Whereas the pressure actuating the bellows of the thermostat is the pressure of the fluid confined in the bulb, the pressures actuating the bellows of the low-and-high-pressure controls are the suction and ischarge pressures of the compressor, respectively. Like the thermostat, both controls have cut--in and cut-out points which are usually adjustable in the field.

Read the following text:

MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT AND COLD

The international unit of heat is a quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water through 1°C. This unit of heat is called the kilogram-calorie (abbrev.kcal.) English-speaking countries use the British Thermal Unit (B.T.U.), which is a quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb. (=0.4536 kg.) of water through 1°F. B.T.U. - 0.252 kcal. Since heat is a form of energy, energy in the form of heat may be expressed in the units commonly used for other forms of energy, for instance:



1 horsepower-hour (hph) = 632 kcal

1 kilogram-metre (kgm) = 1/427 kcal

1 kilowatt-hour (kw/h) - 860 kcal

Heating and cooling loads and capacities are expressed in units of heat per unit of time, e.g. kilogram-calories per hour (kcal/h) or BTU/h.

1 kcal/h = 3.97 BTU/h.

In Britain and America cooling capacity is often expressed in tons of refrigeration, the unit being the amount of heat given off from one British or American ton of ice when melted in 24 hours.

Speak on the following:

1. Units of heat.

2. British Thermal Unit.

3. Units of cooling loads and capacities.

 

Lesson C.

Speech Practice.

THE CONSTITUTION OF UKRAINE

On June 28, 1996 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on behalf of the Ukrainian people adopted the Constitution — the Fundamental Law. The Constitution of Ukraine consists of 15 chapters, 161 articles. It asserts that Ukraine is a sovereign and independent, democratic, social, legal state. It is a Unitarian state with single citizenship.



Ukraine is a republic. The people are the only source of power which is exercised directly and through the bodies of state power and local self-government.

The land, mineral raw materials, air space, water and other natural resources which are on the territory of Ukraine are objects of the property right of Ukrainian people.

The state language in Ukraine is Ukrainian.

The state symbols of Ukraine are the State Flag, the State Emblem and the State Anthem of Ukraine. The State Flag is a blue and a yellow banner made from two equal horizontal stripes. The main element of the Great State Emblem of Ukraine is the Sign of the Statue of Prince Volodimyr the Great. The State Anthem of Ukraine is the national anthem with the music of M.Verbytsky.

The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv.

Citizens of Ukraine have equal Constitutional rights and freedoms and are equal before the law.

The articles of the Constitution guarantee the rights to life, personal inviolability and the inviolability of dwelling, noninterference in private and family life, free choice of residence, work, rest, education, social security, housing, health protection, medical care and medical insurance, legal assistance, a safe and healthy environment.

Defence of the Motherland, of the independence and territorial integrity of Ukraine, and respect for the state's symbols are the duty of citizens. Citizens of Ukraine perform military services in accordance with the law.

No person may damage the environment, cultural heritage. Every person shall pay taxes and duties in the order and amount determined by law.

Under the Constitution the powers of the government are divided into three branches — the legislative which consists of the Verkhovna Rada, the executive, headed by the President, and the judicial, which is led by the Supreme Court.

The parliament — the Verkhovna Rada is the only body of the legislative power in Ukraine. There are 450 people's deputies who are elected for a term of four years on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The Verkhovna Rada adopts the State Budget for the period from January 1 to December 31 and controls the execution of it. The monetary unit of Ukraine is the Hryvnia.

The President of Ukraine is the head of the state and speaks on behalf of it. He is elected directly by the voters for a term of five years with no more than two full terms.

The highest body of the executive power is the Cabinet of Ministers. It is responsible to the President and is accountable to the Verkhovna Rada. It carries out domestic and foreign policy of the State, the fulfillment of the Constitution, as well as the acts of the President, develops and fulfills national programs on the economic, scientific and technological, social and cultural development of Ukraine.

Justice in Ukraine is exercised entirely by courts. It is administered by the Constitutional Court and by courts of general jurisdiction. The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the highest juridical body of general jurisdiction.

The Constitution defines the territorial structure of Ukraine. It is composed of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, 24 oblasts, rayons, cities, rayons in cities, settlements and villages. Cities of Kyiv and Sevastopol possess a special status determined by law.

The Day of the Constitution of Ukraine is a state holiday.

Words to the text:

adopt /ə'dɔpt/ приймати

on behalf of /bi'ha:f/ від імені

sovereign /'sɔvrin/ суверенний

exercise /'eksəsaiz/ здійснювати; виконувати

body /bodi/ орган; звід, кодекс

anthem /'ænθəm/ гімн

banner /'bænə/ стяг

stripe /'straip/ смуга

restrictions /ris'trik∫nz/ обмеження

guarantee /,gærən'ti:/ гарантувати

inviolability /in,vaiələ'biləti/ недоторканість

insurance /in'∫uərəns/ страхування

taxes and duties /'tæksiz ən 'dju:tiz/ податки і збори

legislative /'leʒislətiv/ законодавчий

executive /ig'zekjutiv/ виконавчий

judicial /ʒu'di∫l/ судовий

Supreme Court /sju:'pri:m 'kɔ:t/ Верховний Суд

suffrage /'sʌfriʒ/ виборче право

voter /'voutə/ виборець

accountable /ə'kauntəbl/ підзвітний

fulfill /ful'fil/ здійснювати

 

Exercises:

I. Answer the questions:

1. When was the Constitution of Ukraine adopted?

2. What country is Ukraine according to the Constitution?

3. What are the state symbols of Ukraine?

4. What rights does the Constitution guarantee to Ukrainian citizens?

5. Do you know the duties of Ukrainian citizens?

6. What kind of body is the Verkhovna Rada?

7. How is the executive power represented in Ukraine?

8. What is the highest body of the executive power?

9. What is the Cabinet of Ministers responsible for?

 

10. What is the highest juridical body of general jurisdiction?

11. How does the Constitution define the territorial structure of Ukraine?

II. Read the following texts and fill in the table below:

Great Britain consists of four countries divided into counties: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. London, the capital, is the centre of government for the whole of Britain, but local authorities are partly responsible for education, health, care, roads, the police and some other things.

Laws are made by Parliament. There are two "houses": the House of Commons and the House of Lords (which has little power). Members of the House of Commons are called Mps (Members of Parliament); an MP is elected by the people from a particular area. They are elected every five years. The head of the government is the Prime Minister. He / she is the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons. There are three large political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, Liberal and the Conservative.

***

The USA is the federation of states. The President is the head of the government. He is elected for four years.

The US Congress consists of two Houses — the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate has 100 senators, two from each state, and they are elected for six years. One-third of the Senate is elected every two years. The head of the Senate is the Vice-President who is elected for four years. The House of Representatives consists of 435 members. They are elected for two years. The main parties in the USA are the Republican and Democratic Parties.

 

  Ukraine Great Britain the USA
administrative division     50 states, divided into counties
The capital is Kyiv    
Laws are made by   the Parliament  
which consists of      
Members are called   MPs  
They are elected for      
Head of government is      
The political parties are      

III. Read the following symbol definitions of different countries and name the countries the symbols belong to:

1) The National Emblem of the country is a trident.

2) The 14-th of June,anniversary of the day in 1777 when the Stars and Stripes became the national flag of the country.

3) The national flag of the country is called the Union Jack.


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