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Еліптичні конструкції — це неповні підрядні речення, які звичайно складаються із сполучника та прикметника або іменника з прийменником чи без прийменника.


  Тип конструкції Приклад
1. Еліптична конструкція зі сполучниками although, though, if, once, when, whileхарактеризується відсутністю підмета та дієслова-зв'язки to be A bullet cannot alter its course while in flight. Куля не може змінити траєкторію, коли вона у польоті.
2. Еліптична конструкція зі сполучниками whatever, no matter how, howeverхарактеризуються відсутністю присудка, а інколи і підмета Whatever the shape of a magnet, it has two poles. Якою б не була форма магніта, він має два полюси.
3. Еліптична конструкція "сполучник з прикметником з суфіксами -able, -ible". If (when, where) possible this method is always used. Якщо (коли, там де) це можливо, цей метод завжди використовується.
4. Еліптична конструкція "if any (if anything)"характеризується пропуском звороту there is (are). Ця конструкція зви­чайно стоїть після іменника, до якого вона відноситься, або вставляється між іменником та його правим означенням The nucleus determines the radioactive properties, if any, of the atom. Ядро зумовлює радіоактивні властивості атома, якщо він такі має.

Правило перекладу: Відновити відсутні члени речення та перекласти речення з їх урахуванням.

Translate the following sentences:

1. Galileo proved that objects fall at the same speed whatever their weight.

2. These conditions can be created by the cooling device, if any.

3. When visible, sunspots are the most interesting objects on the solar surface.

4. No matter how complex the machine, it is always made up of standard simple machines.

5. Though a quarter of million miles away, the Moon is our nearest neighbour in space.

Electric charge, although not directly observable, makes itself evident by such means as the effects of the electric current.

7. However thin the shock wave, the air speed is reduced and the air heated.

8. Whatever the method, the calculation must be precise.

9. However great the pressure changes, the density of the flow must remain unchanged.

10.No matter what the nature of the surfaces that are moving over each other, there is always some opposition to the motions.

11.This summer the weather is not so hot as last year.

12.Though intelligent, the young man was badly educated.

13.The fluid, cither air or heater, to which heat is rejected is usually used for the condenser.

14.The removed contaminants, either dry or in solution, must be treated wisely or a new pollution may result in the system.

15.When ready, start the engine.

16.Despite improvements in the design of the equipment, it efficiency remained low.

17.Any fluid, no matter how viscous, will yield (поступатися) in time to the slightest stress.

18.But a solid, on matter how plastic, requires a certain magnitude of stress to be exerted before it will flow.

19.This method, though well known, is seldom used because of being expensive.

20.The refrigerating unit, if any, may be used in this case.

Read and translate the text:


Although "man shall not live by bread alone", food and drink are necessary, and refrigeration is essential in many phases of the preparation, storage, and distribution of various foods and beverages. The primary purpose of food refrigeration is to aid preservation, which has contributed greatly toward increasing the standard of living as well as reducing wastage.

There are four distinct scientific approaches to the problem of food preservation: heat treatment, as applied in canning, drying or dehydration, physico-chemical modifications, and refrigeration. The primary purpose in each of these methods is to arrest the growth, to inhibit the action, or actually to destroy the microbiological and enzymic agencies that evantually would break down,deteriorate,or spoil the food substance. All are based on scientific principles which can be understood or applied most effectively after studying the results of the research work that has been conducted in that particular field.

The refrigeration method of preserving is applied in various ways to different products. Chilling of a fruit or vegetable retards its rate of maturing and thus may prolong its life. Keeping a product at a reduced temperature also retards the spread of bacteria that would cause the product to spoil if allowed to become active. Many food products can be preserved and made to retain their original flavor texture by proper freezing.

It is difficult to classify distinctly the many processes used for freezing,since the principles applied often overlap. The principles used include (1) convection freezing with air that has been cooled by pipe coils,plates,or unit coolers and applied in sharp freezers; (2) air blasts in tunnels where the product is conveyed on a belt, on trays, or on trucks; (3) direct contact with an edible liquid coolant by spraying it over the product or immersing the product in it; (4) indirect contact by placing the product on or against a chilled metal surface; (5) and the creation of a high-vacuum atmosphere by steam nozzles so that the absolute pressure corresponds to a saturation temperature well below freezing.


I. Make a plan to the text using the following words:

1) purpose / food refrigeration

2) four / approach / preservation


4) methods / purpose

5) refrigeration / possibilities

6) processes / freezing

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