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II Retell the text according to the plan.
Translation of word-combinations with the words so, along with, virtue
Translate the sentences:
1. Ask your friend not to speak soloudly in the library.
2. The fuel used in the internal combustion engine is gasoline, which is mixed with air in a carburator so asto form an explosive mixture.
3. Liquid hydrogen is the best propellant for the nuclear rocket found so far.
4. For the last one hundred years or so the world's consumption of fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas has greatly increased.
5. Force can be measured in such common units as pounds, kilograms and so on.
ALONG WITH разом з
Translate the sentences:
1. Along with the large industrial refrigerators there are very small ones for specimens on microscope stages.
2. Along with the list of possible attractive characteristics of reactors, there are, unfortunately, certain dangerous points.
3. This equipment has many advantages along with the low price.
virtue/vә:tju:/ позитивна риса: сила, дія
by virtue ofзавдяки (syn. due it)
virtually/'vәrtjuәli/ фактично (syn. in fact)
Translate the sentences:
1. Freon is a refrigerant of great virtue.
2. The device has the virtue of being adjusted.
3. Water in a wave obtains kinetic energy by virtue of its motion.
4. Heat is the energy that a body possesses by virtue of the fact that its molecules are in motion.
5. The space station is virtually a scientific laboratory.
Read the text and answer the question:
Why is the humidity control so important?
"Psychrometric" literally means "pertaining to the measurement of cold", but in modern usage it refers to the state of the atmosphere with reference to moisture. The earth's atmospere — the air we breathe and the air in most refrigerated spaces — is mainly a mixture of dry air and water vapor. Of course in special cases other gases or vapors might also be present. But generally speaking, in refrigeration applications the atmosphere is considered a mixture of dry air and water vapor.
Although the relative amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is very small (about 0.08 per cent by weight at 0°F saturated only 1.56 per cent at 70 F saturated), variations in this amount as well as changes in temperature are very significant and important in air conditioning. Relative to human comfort, there is much truth in the common expression, "It's not the heat, it's the humidity". Humidity means the amount of water vapor within a given space.
In many instances humidity controls is very important. Poor register is often noticed in colored printing, particularly in the Sunday comics; adjacent colors overlap or do not meet. A change in atmospheric humidity between the printing of the different colors probably was the cause, since paper shrinks and stretches as the humidity changes. In a meat cooler, too low a humidity can cause shrinkage, or drying out, which means a loss of product and less income to the owner. On the other hand, too high a humidity promotes a growth of mold and possible spoilage of the product. Therefore it should be evident that a study of psychromentry, including the properties of air-vapor mixtures and their measurement and control, is important in air conditioning.
Text for translation:
FROZEN PRODUCTS AND DEEP-FROZEN PRODUCTS.
In a frozen product most of the water is transformed into ice and is separated from the other constituents. For this, it undergoes a special freezing process that allows it to retain its character and quality and keeps to a minimum possible physical, biochemical and microbiochemical deteriorations during freezing and preservation.
The term "deep-frozen product" is often used. This term and its equivalent ("quick-frozen product") mean that the set of rules which are listed below have been observed by the manufacturer and by the various professionals who help to distribute these products:
— the product shall be from the start in the best possible condition;
— depending on the nature of the product, specific treatments shall be done before freezing (cutting up, cleaning, etc.);
— freezing shall be done in an industrial freezer in such a way that the zone of maximum crystallization (-1° to -5°C) is rapidly crossed, and the temperature everywhere in the product is brought to -18°C or below;
— the product shall be protected by an airtight package suitable for the product and the conditions of use;
— the temperature of the product shall be kept at -18°C or below during storage, transport and marketing.
There is no scientific criterion for distinguishing a frozen product from a deep-frozen one. But for a frozen product it is possible not to follow all the conditions above. In particular, the product could, depending on its nature, be stored at -18°C, as long as the temperature on no account surpasses - 10°C; it could go without an airtight package; it could be intended for industrial sale, etc.
I. Translate the following word-combinations. Point out the basic words:
low-temperature frozen product; frozen-packed product; liquid freezer; deep freezer; commercial freezer; frozen package; airtight package.
II. Find in the text sentences with the verb "shall". Define its function.
III. Write a short summary of the text. Use the keywords:
a frozen product
a deep frozen product
the set of rules
at / above / below -18°C
Lesson C. Speech Practice
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