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Grammar. В англійській мові поряд зі звичайним порядком слів, коли присудок стоїть після підмету, бувають випадки




Читайте также:
  1. Grammar
  2. Grammar
  3. Grammar
  4. Grammar and Meaning: Recognizing clauses
  5. Grammar in Use
  6. GRAMMAR PRACTICE SECTION
  7. GRAMMAR PRACTICE SECTION
  8. GRAMMAR PRACTICE SECTION
  9. GRAMMAR PRACTICE SECTION

INVERSION ІНВЕРСІЯ

В англійській мові поряд зі звичайним порядком слів, коли присудок стоїть після підмету, бувають випадки, коли присудок, або його частина, передує підмету. Такий порядок слів називається інверсією, тобто перестановкою. Це явище використовується з метою, щоб виділити слова, до яких треба привернути увагу. Ці речення часто входять до складу складних речень.

Порядок слів у реченнях з інверсією.

1.

I II III IV
Друга частина присудка: Present / PastParticiple іменник з прийменником / прикметник / пояснювальні слова перша частина присудка — особова форма дієслова to be підмет

 

e.g. The fundamental principles of refrigeration are presented in this book.Includedin the first chapter arethe fundamentals of physics and thermodynamics.

В даній книзі представлені основні принципи штучного охолодження. Тут же, у перших розділах, подано основи фізики і термодинаміки.

2.

I II III IV
never before; only; no longer; not only... (but); not until; nor; neither; so допоміжне дієслово підмет присудок другорядні члени речення

e.g. Not only doeslife itself depend onthe atmospheric air but flight depend onit also. He тільки життя залежить від повітряної атмосфери, але й навігація залежить від неї також.

Carbon dioxide doesn't burn, nor does it support combustion. Двоокис вуглецю не горить і не підтримує горіння.

"Не knows English well". "So does his sister". "Він добре знає англійську". "Також, як і його сестра".

3.

І II III IV
прикметник сполучники as або though підмет присудок

e.g. This new branch of science, youngas it is,touches on many important practical applications. Ця нова галузь науки, хоча вона і виникла недавно, лежить в основі багатьох важливих практичних використань.

4. Інверсія також використовується в умовних реченнях. У цьому випадку сполучники if, provided та інші не вживаються. Порядок слів у підпорядкованому реченні такий, як у запитальному реченні.

e.g. Hadhe hadthe proper laboratory equipment he would have finished the experiment long ago. Якщо б у нього було належне лабораторне обладнання, він давно б закінчив експеримент.



Способи перекладу речень з інверсією.

1. Речення першого типу починають перекладати словами, які стоять після винесеного на перше місце присудка, а лише потім переходять до перекладу самого присудка.

2. Речення другого типу починають перекладати з обставинних слів: ніколи раніше: тільки: більш не: не тільки... (але); тільки після: тільки тоді, коли або словами: а також не: також і.

3. Речення з сполучниками as або though — "хоча" починають перекладати зі сполучника, далі перекладають підмет, який стоїть за сполучником, і врешті присудок.

4. Умовні речення з інверсією перекладаються за допомогою сполучників "якщо", "за умов".

Translate the following sentences taking in consideration the rules written above:

 

1. Not until the seventeenth century did man begin to understand pressure.

2.Rutherford and Niels Bohr came to the conclusion that the atom consisted of a central core, the nucleus, having a positive electric charge. Revolving around it in various orbits are a number of negative electrons.

3.Had we known about the meeting we should have attended it.



4.Copper readily allows electric current to flow through it and so does silver.

5.The Milky Way is not uniform in brightness, nor is the distribution of the stars in the Milky Way uniform.

6.Science is a continuing process and at no stage can one say that one's knowledge is complete and final.

7. Not only do metals conduct heat, but so do all other substances.

  1. Should the falling body stop all friction would disappear.

9. Similar in structure to the solar system is the atom.

  1. Only in this century have we found how to control, create and destroy the nucleus of the atom.
  2. Were friction removed walking would be impossible.
  3. Included in this section is a description of a typical centrifugal pump.
  4. Had he known the rule he wouldn’t have done such mistakes in the text.
  5. Not only does man depend on water but life on the Earth depend on it also.
  6. Natural gas, expensive though it is, finds many practical applications.
  7. Not only does oxygen from the water but hydrogen does it as well.
  8. Included into the atmospheric air are many gases.
  9. Not until the XX-th century did people have computers.
  10. Solar system reminds the structure of atom. Revolving around the Sun are planets as negative electrons around the nucleus.
  11. Reliable as it is, computer sometimes makes wrong conclusions.

Read and translate the following text:

AIR CONDITIONING

Air conditioning is the simultaneous control of the temperature, humidity, motion, and purity of the atmosphere in a confined space. Credit for first using the expression is given to S.W. Cramar, who presented a paper on humidity control in textile mills before the National Cotton Manufacturers' Association in 1907. The term "yarn conditioning" was in common usage, and "air conditioning" seemed to be a logical expression for the process of controlling the atmospheric conditions.



When most people hear the expression "air conditioning" they think of a cool temperature in a theater or restaurant in the summer and generally regard it as a development of the 1930's. However, by definition, air conditioning applies in the heating season as well as in the cooling season, and the air-conditioning industry really obtained its start in industrial applications in the early part of the 20-th century. The refrigerating engineer is more interested in summer air conditioning than in winter air conditioning.

Summer air conditioning includes cooling, which may be accomplished by one of several means. The best method for a given application depends upon the local atmospheric conditions: the quantity, temperature, and cost of water available; the type and cost of steam, gas, or electric power available; and the nature of the application itself. The following are the most common types of air-cooling systems:

1. Direct-refrigeration system, in which the refrigerant evaporator is an air-cooling unit placed so that the air to be cooled passes directly over it.

2. Indirect refrigeration system, in which the refrigerant evaporator cools a circulating medium, such as water or brine, which in turn is used in the air-cooling unit.

3. Well-water system circulating the water through the air-cooling unit.

4. Combination refrigeration and well-water system.

5. Evaporative cooling system, in which the air-cooling unit is an air washer or other device presenting a large amount of wetted surface in the air stream and the water used is recirculated. Only enough fresh water is added to make up for that which evaporates and to flush out the system periodically.

In addition to the type of cooling equipment to use,the method of air distribution employed must be given careful consideration. Often the latter is the most critical part of the installation. Industrial applications may require an even temperature and air movement through out. Dis­agreeable drafts must be avoided in comfort applications. Satisfactory methods of supplying air from either the ceiling or side wall are known. If commercial outlets are to be used, reliable data on them are available from several manufactures. In considering the duct-sizing methods used, experience has indicated that less field adjustment and trouble are experienced when the static regain method is used.

 

Answer the questions:

1. Who introduced the term "air conditioning"?

2. When did air conditioning start its applications?

3. What does air conditioning include?

4. What are the most common types of air-cooling systems?

5. What should be taken into account in choosing the type of cooling equipment?

Lesson B.

Translation Practice

MEANINGS OF THE PRONOUN IT ЗНАЧЕННЯ ЗАЙМЕННИКА IT

IT

1) особовий займенник

2) вказівний займенник (це)

3) безособовий (не перекладається)

4) посилювальний It is... that/which

It is ...who саме ... що (хто)

1) English is a Germanic language. It has a long history. Англійська є германська мова. Вона має довгу історію.

2) It should be noted that the unit of pressure — pound per square inch (lb/sq. in.) is used in English-speaking countries. Треба зауважити, що одиниця виміру тиску, фунт на квадратний дюйм, використовується в англомовних країнах.

3) It is important to know English measurements for reading English scientific and technical texts. Щоб читати наукові та технічні тексти англійською мовою, важливо знати англійські вимірювання.

4) It was Faraday who first suggested that electrolytic action might be used for measuring currents. Саме Фарадей був першим, хто запропонував використовувати електролітичну дію для вимірювання електричного струму.

Define the functions of the pronounit in the following sentences and translate

them into Ukrainian:

1. It's a nice day today, isn't it?

2. It is possible to enumerate about 150 branches of technique where artificial cold is applied.

3. It has been proved by many experiments that when energy is changed from one form to another the whole amount of energy remains unchanged.

4. It was not until around 1610 when Galileo first observed Saturn through his telescope.

5. It was Newton who first showed that white light can be split into many colours all of which are present in the white light.

6. Mercury is the only common metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures. It is much heavier than iron and many other metals we consider heavy.

7. It is the electron motion which causes the waves known as radiation.

8. It is water that is the most common thing in our life.

9. It was necessary to do it in time.

 

10. It is not difficult to give definitions to chemical and physical changes.

11. What time is it? It's twelve o'clock.

12. It often rains in autumn and it snows in winter.

 

Text for translation:

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF AIR CONDITIONING

Few people realize that air conditioning is used extensively — until about 1925, almost exclusively — in manufacturing plants. Controlled air conditions are essential in the manufacture of rayon and various plastics, in color printing, in making many pharmaceuticals, in the tobacco industry, in the manufacture, development, and reproduction of photographic materials, in precision machine works for year-round production, and in the control of the quality of chocolates, certain candies, gum, matches, felt goods, several textile patent leather, electrical equipment, and any hydroscopic products.

Hydroscopic materials are those in which the moisture content increases or decreases when they are exposed to varying humidity conditions. Some hydroscopic materials expand and contract appreciably with changes in moisture content. One example of this is wood, as evidenced in the swelling of doors and window sashes in the humid summer atmosphere as compared with their shrinkage in the dry winter atmosphere.

Hydroscopic moisture is different from the moisture content obtained by contact with liquid water. If a wet cloth is placed in a room, it will lose moisture until it is apparently dry. The moisture retained in the cloth, which appears dry and has reached an equilibrium condition, is the hydroscopic moisture. If the cloth is heated in a drying chamber until no more moisture can be driven out, the final constant weight is called the bone-dry weight for the drying-chamber conditions. The ratio of hydroscopic moisture in a material to its bone-dry weight when expressed as a percentage is called regain. Moisture content is generally indicated as a percentage of the total weight and includes both hydroscopic and surface moisture.

Benefits to the workers' health and comfort are incidental in industrial air conditioning, but often the design conditions can be adjusted to be as near the comfort zone conditions as possible.

Lesson C.

Speech practice

MY FUTURE SPECIALITY

I am a second-year student of Odesa State Academy of Refrigeration. I study at one of the Institutes of the Academy — the Institute of Low-temperature Engineering and technology, which provides students with profound knowledge in the following specialities: "Refrigeration Machines and Installations", "Compressors, Pneumatic Actuators; Vacuum Apparatuses", "Air-condentioning and Life-supporting Systems", "Cryogenic Engineering" and "Technical Cryophysics". To be qualified specialists we study a lot of subjects: Cryogenic installations and systems; Theoretical bases of air-conditioning; aerodynamics and ventilators; Refrigerating machines; Refrigeration technique; Thermodynamics; Installations of liquefaction and separation of gaseous mixtures; Compression refrigerating machines; Heat and mass transfer and many others.

Those who want to get a Bachelor’s deploma should study 4 years. Master’s degree you can get after 5 years of study.

The refrigeration and air-conditioning industry is characterized by steady growth.

Special applications of refrigeration and air-conditioning are numerous. They range from small appliances to the large industrial scale: refrigeration units for chilling drinking water, installations for the production of ice, devices for dehumidifying air in homes and buildings, refrigeration systems for freezing water in ice rinks.

[Refrigeration is also used in desalination of seawater. Sometimes it is used in construction for freezing soil to facilitate excavations and in cooling huge masses of concrete. In the chemical and process industries refrigeration serves for separation of one substance in a mixture to separate it from others, for maintenance of a low temperature of stored liquid and for removal of heat of reaction. Along with cryogenics refrigeration is used in medicine, metallurgy, welding and cutting of metals and so on.

Thus, the graduates of the Institute can work in many branches of National Economy: at refrigeration shops of commercial enterprises producing food products, at refrigerated transport, at fishing fleet, at chemical and petrochemical plants. They can carry out scientific research at scientific-research centers to develop new multipurpose refrigeration and cryogenic equipment — starting from food industry and agriculture to space exploration.

The specialists hold the posts of mechanical engineers, design engineers, chief engineers, shift engineers, managers, scientific workers, etc.

The Institute maintains contacts with the graduates rendering them help in their work on probation and their professional activity.

Exercises:

I. Speak on:

1)the professions one can get at the Institute of Low-temperature Engineering;

2) the special subjects you study at the Academy.

3) the branches of National Economy where the graduates can work;

4) the posts the specialists can hold.

II. Answer the questions:

1. Where are you going to work after graduating from the Academy?

2. What are demands for modern engineer to get a vacancy?

3. What is necessary to do a post-graduate course?

4. What is necessary to do a scientific research?

5. What is the task of Ukrainian science at present?

6. What are the tasks facing the Ukrainian economy?


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