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  1. Applying Your Knowledge
  2. Do a bit of translator work. Compare your translation with those of your classmates.
  3. Group work. Split into buzz groups of 3—4 students each.
  4. Pair work. Make up and act out situations using the phrases and word combinations.
  5. Pair work. Make up and act out situations using the phrases and word combinations.
  6. Pair work. Make up and act out situations using the phrases and word combinations.
  7. Write these verbs in the correct order according to the usual actions of the policemen at work.
  8. Самостійна робота.

trade професія, ремесло

occupation заняття, професія

to be employed бути прийнятим на роботу

unemployed безробітний

employer /im'ploiə/ роботодавець, наймач

employee /,emploi'i:/ службовець

employment agency агентство по найму

to be between jobs тимчасово не працювати

to retire /ri'taiə/ піти на пенсію

to be discharged (fired, sacked, dismissed) бути звільненим з роботи

reduction of staff (personnel) скорочення штатів

personnel manager менеджер по кадрам

salary /'sæləri/ заробітна плата, оклад

wages /'weiʒiz/ заробітна плата, заробітки

allowance /ə'lauəns/ періодична грошова допомога,


to earn one's living /ə:n/ заробляти на життя

bonus /'bounəs/ премія

benefits /'benifit/ пільги

tax /tæks/ податок

insurance /in'∫uərəns/ страхування

to put (send) in an application подати заяву

to be appointed to the post бути призначеним на посаду

to hold the post of обіймати посаду

an advertisement /əd'vərtismənt/ оголошення, реклама

to apply for a job звертатися по роботу
CV — Curriculum Vitae /kə'rikjuləm 'vaitə/ автобіографія

resume резюме, автобіографія

single /'siŋgl/ неодружений, незаміжня

married /'mærid/ жонатий, одружений

divorced /di'vo:st/ розлучений

separated /sepəreitid/ живучий окремо

date of birth /bə:θ/ дата народження

Mr. Mister /'mistə/ містер

Mrs. Mistress /misiz/ місіс

Miss /mis/ міс (неодружена жінка)

Ms /miz, məz/ при звертанні до ділової жінки

або коли невідомий родинний стан жінки

experience /iks'piəriəns/ стаж практичної діяльності

branch /'braint∫/ філія, відділення

company /'kAmpəni/ компанія

temporary work /'tempərəri/ тимчасова робота

applicant кандидат, претендент


І. Fill in the form:


Mr / Mrs / Miss / Ms ...............

First name......................


Age / Date of Birth..................

Marital status..................



Tel: ...........

Education and qualifications

Sept 198.. secondary school — May 199.. … vocational school


June 199// OSAR — started as an engineer

II. Work in pairs. Make dialogues between interviewers and applicants.

Questions that can be asked at an interview:

— Why do you want to leave your present job?

— How long have you worked there?

— What are the years of experience?

— What is the name and address of your last employer?

— What languages do you speak, read and write?

— What was your last salary?

— What is the salary you would expect to receive?

— How long do you think you would stay with us if you were appointed?

— What kind of person are you?

Are you ambitious / shy / energetic / industrious?

— What is your worst and best quality?

— What do you do in your spare time?

Why do you think you would enjoy working for us?

III. Choose one of the advertised jobs and write a letter of application to accompany your


A WELL-KNOWN WESTERN COMPANY SEEKS SALES MANAGER for South Ukrainian region. Very good salary and conditions. Age between 25 and 40. Not less than 3 years previous selling experience. Good English required. Computer literacy essential. Please send your resume to Managing Director, Kyiv-25000, POBOX 1222


REFRIGERATION ENGINEERS REQUIRED Applicants must be between 22 and 30 years old. Higher education needed. Experience not essential. Apply in writing to: Personnel Manager, North Star Ltd, 33 Green Street, Lucky City, Homeland.


MAGAZINE FOR STUDENTS OF ENGLISH is looking for correspondent. Age between 18 and 25. Candidate must be fluent in English, familiar with Win.95. Applicants should fax resume to Chief Editor.

Model letters of application

Назва та адреса компанії Адреса кандидата


Dear Sir(s),

І am interested in the post of.... , which you advertised in ... newspaper. At the moment I am working for ... For the last three years I have been working as ... Other positions which I have held are listed in enclosed C.V. I speak and write good English.

I hope you will be able to give my application your favourable consideration. Yours faithfully,


(name and surname)

Dear... 27th August 199...

I wish to apply for one of the positions advertised in this week's...

My name is... I am 22 and I am a Ukrainian citizen. I have graduated from ... this year. At the institute I studied computing, ... I can write and speak a little English. I am fluent in Ukrainian and Russian.

In spite of the lack of experience I am enthusiastic, accurate, industrious and sociable.

I am looking forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely,






Lesson A.Text A: Condensers. Text B: Evaporators.

Grammar: Different Meanings of shouldand would

Lesson B.Annotation. Summary. Essay. Synopsis

Lesson C. Speech Practice: Odesa State Academy of Refrigeration.

Lesson A

Key words: condensing medium середовище, що конденсує(ться)

saturation /sætju'rei∫n/ насичення

brine /brain/ розcол

air-cooled повітряний

water-cooled condensers водяний (конденсатори)

evaporative випарний

utilize /'ju:tilaiz/ використовувати

vaporize /,veipə'raiz/ випаровувати

operating conditions умови експлуатації

flooded and dry expansion випаровування з відводом

вологого та сухого пару

maintain /men'tein/ підтримувати, утримувати

float valve поплавковий регулятор (клапан)

liquid level control регулятор рівня рідини

draw off /dro:/ витягувати

wet /wet/ зволожувати

refrigerant charge /t∫a:ʒ/ навантаження холодоагентом

amount /ə'maunt/ кількість

Lexical Drills

I. Which word is different in the following lists?

1) condensation, evaporation, operation, compression

2) condenser, evaporator, expansion valve, refrigerant

3) radiation, conduction, superheating, convection

II. Give the English equivalents for the following Ukrainian words and word-combinations:

Випарник; компресор; конденсатор; теплопередача; середовище; що охолоджує; температура насичення; теплообмінний апарат; конденсатор з повітряним охолодженням; випарний конденсатор; умови експлуатації; випаровування з відводом сухого пару; випаровування з відводом вологого пару.

III. True or false?

1. In a centrifugal pump the impeller of the pump and the pump-driving motor are frequently an integral unit.

2. The capacity of a centrifugal pump doesn't depend on the design and size of the pump.

3. Pumps used in the refrigerating industry are usually centrifugal pumps.

4. The pumping head is minimum when the valve on the discharge of the pump is closed.






1) допоміжне дієслово від shallдля утворення 1 особи однини і множини Future-in-the-Past при узгодженні часів. e.g. They insisted that we should stay to have dinner with them. Вони наполягали, щоб ми залишилися пообідати з ними.

2) модальне дієслово, яке виражає пораду, пропозицію. Має значення "слід", "треба", "необхідно". e.g. Do you think I should apply for this job? Ти гадаєш мені слід звернутися по цю роботу?

3) бере участь в утворенні Subjunctive Mood e.g. The party was great last night. I think that you should have come. Вечірка була гарною минулого вечора. Гадаю, тобі слід було б прийти.

Note:1. Should використовується після:

1) дієслів: suggest, propose, recommend, insist, demand, require та інших

e.g. She demanded that he should apologize to her. Вона вимагала, щоб він вибачився перед нею.

2) прикметників: important, strange, funny, natural, essential, odd, typical, interesting та інших.

e.g. It is strange that he should be late. He's usually on time. Це дивно, що він може спізнитися.

Він звичайно приходить вчасно.

2. Should використовується тоді, коли той, хто говорить, очікує, що щось напевно трапиться: e.g. He should get the job. He has got the necessary qualifications. Він напевно одержить цю роботу. Він має необхідну кваліфікацію.


1) допоміжне дієслово для утворення 2-ої та 3-ої особи однини і множини Future-in-the-Past при узгодженні чaciв:e.g. Ann promised that she wouldn't be late. Ганна обіцяла, що вона не буде запізнюватися.

2) для вираження дії, що часто повторювалася у минулому e.g. Being students we would have dinner in this canteen. За часів студенства ми, бувало, обідали у цій їдальні.

3) при утворенні Subjunctive Mood:

e.g. I wish the rain would stop. Я б хотів, щоб дощ перестав іти.

Note: Would використовується, коли мається на увазі не реальна, а уявна ситуація, e.g. If I had known the number, I would have phoned you. Якщо б я знав номер, то зателефонував би вам.


I. Define meanings of should and would in the following sentences:

1. It is important that the temperature in the boiler should remain constant.

2. We wish you would explain us this grammar rule once more.

3. The lecturer said that the students would be sent to the plants to get practical skills.

4. They tried, but the engine wouldn't work.

5. This instrument should be treated properly.

6. One should be careful working with poisonous substances.

7. You should return the book to the library soon as possible.

8. If he could come he would take part in the discussion.

9. He said he would work at this plant.

10.You should be careful working with sharp tools.

11.I wish you should be more attentive.

12.It would be better if you dot up earlier.

ІI. Use should or would in the following sentences:

1. I think the results of the experiments (should / would) be positive.

2. If I was offered the job I (should / would) take it.

3. It (should / would) be noted that space flight involves many different problems.

4. It is very important that physicists (should / would) solve the problem of control of dangerous radiations.

5. If it were possible to live on the Moon, people (should / would) be able to jump about six times as high as they could on the Earth.

6. We asked the teacher if he (should / would) help us with the translation of the article.

7. (should / would) like to carry on my research work in the field of artificial refrigeration.

8. We were told that we (should / would) make experiments under the directions of a skilled instructor.

9. What (should / would) you do if you lost your passport in a foreign country?


10. The demand is that all measurements (should / would) be made very accurately.

11. We used to live next to a railway line. Every time a train went past, the whole house (should / would) shake.

12. If you used this method the results (should/would) be correct

Read and translate the text:


Both evaporators and condensers are heat transfer surfaces.

Heat from the hot refrigerant vapor passes through the walls of the condenser to the condensing medium. As the result of losing heat to the condensing medium, the refrigerant vapor is first cooled to saturation and then condensed into the liquid state.

Although brine or direct expansion refrigerants are sometimes used as condensing mediums in low temperature applications, in the great majority of cases the condensing medium employed is either air or water, or a combination of both.

Condensers are of three general types: (1) air-cooled, (2) water-cooled, and (3) evaporative. Air-cooled condensers employ air as the condensing medium, whereas water-cooled condensers utilize water to condense the refrigerant. In both the air-cooled and water-cooled condensers, the heat given off by the condensing refrigerant increases the temperature of the air or water used as the condensing medium.

Evaporative condensers employ both air and water. Although there is some increase in the temperature of the air passing through the condenser, the cooling of the refrigerant in the condenser results initially from the evaporation of the water from the surface of the condenser.

The function of the air is to increase the rate of evaporation by carrying away the water vapor which results from the evaporating process.

Answer the questions:

1. What is a condenser?

2. How many types of condensers are there in use?

3. What fluids are used as condensing mediums in different types of condensers?

4. What are the functions of the condensing mediums?


Any heat transfer surface in which a refrigerant is vaporized for the purpose of removing heat from the refrigerated space is called an evaporator. Because of the many different require­ments of the various applications, evaporators are manufactured in a wide variety of types, shapes, sizes, and designs, and they may be classified in a number of different ways, such as type of construction, operating condition, method of air (or liquid) circulation, type of refrigerant control, and application.

Evaporators fall into two general categories, flooded and dry expansion, according to their operating condition. The flooded type is always completely filled with liquid refrigerant, the liquid level being maintained with a float valve or some other liquid level control (Fig 9.1). The vapor accumulating from the boiling action of the refrigerant is drawn off the top by the action of the compressor. The principal advantage of the flooded evaporator is that the inside surf ace of the evaporator is always completely wetted with liquid, a condition that produces a very high rate of heat transfer. The principal disadvantage of the flooded evaporator is that it is usually bulky and requires a relatively large refrigerant charge. Liquid refrigerant is fed into the dry-expansion evaporator by an expansion device which meters the liquid into the evaporator at a rate such that all the liquid is vaporized by the time it reaches the end of the evaporator coil (Fig. 9.2). For either type, the rate at which the liquid is fed into the evaporator depends upon the rate of vaporization and increases or decreases as the heat load on the evaporator increases or de­creases. However, whereas the flooded type is always completely filled with liquid, the amount of liquid present in the dry-expansion evaporator will vary with the load on the evaporator. When the load on the evaporator is light, the amount of liquid in the evaporator is small. As the load on the evaporator increases, the amount of liquid in the evaporator increases to accommodate the greater load. Thus, for the dry-expansion evaporator, the amount of liquid-wetted surface and, therefore, the evaporator efficiency, is greatest when the load is greatest.


Fig. 9.1. Flooded evaporator. Notice accumulator and float control. Circulation of the refrigerant through the coil is by gravity. The vapor accumulated from the boiling action in the coil escapes to the top of the accumulator and is drawn off by the suction of the compressor.   Fig. 9.2. Dry-expansion evaporator. Liquid refrigerant vaporizes progressively as it flows through coil and leaves coil as a vapor. Feeler bulb controls rate of flow through the orifice of the flow control.

Answer the questions:

1. What is called an evaporator?

2. What categories do evaporators fall in?

3. Can you describe the work of the flooded evaporator using Fig.9.1?

4. How does the flooded evaporator differ from the dry-expansion evaporator?

Lesson В.

Annotation. Abstract. Summary.


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