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Listen to the Webcast New technology may prevent space travel bone damage and do the exercises.

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3. Listen and decide “who is who”?


Name Position
1) Tom Tilley US inventor
2) Clint Rubin presenter
3) Elizabeth Jackson reporter

C – Comprehension Test 1


1 The new technology is currently being A used in the US B tested in the US C developed in the US   2 The danger to health can increase dramatically A with natural ageing B without sunshine C with physical overload  
3 Crew members on the ISS lost up A to a percent of bone mass per month B to two per cent of bone mass per month. C to two per cent of bone mass per year 4 The round trip to Mars would take   A several years B 70 years C 17 years  
5 An astronaut being deprived of gravity is A rapidly putting on weight B rapidly ageing C deprived of communication with his friends 6 Our skeleton wastes away   A without vitamin C B without the proper physical load C when we sleep  
7 The technology is based on   A artificial skeleton B nutrition of skeleton C mechanical signals into the skeleton   8 The critical period of staying in outer space is not more A than 90 days B 6 months C 16 months  
9 Astronauts are putting their skeletons A at a higher risk of softening B at a higher risk or fracture. C at a higher level of flexibility 10 In the case of fracture on the Mars the problem will be the lack of   A time to recover B medical service C first-aid kit

B – Comprehension Test 2

Part 1

1) What health problem is urgent for those astronauts who travel in zero gravity?

2) What disease are its symptoms like?

3) Where is the new technology currently being tested?

4) How do the signals sent to body affect the astronaut’s bones?

Part 2

TOM TILLEY: It's unlikely that an astronaut returning from their latest ________on the space station will start breaking______________________.

But later in life, when normal _____________________starts___________, the danger can increase dramatically.

An article published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research found that _______ members on the International Space Station lost up to _____________of bone mass per month.

This is one of the human related factors that's stopping mankind from making the trip to Mars which would take several years for the ___________________.


Part 3

US inventor, Professor Clint Rubin, is working __________________that may solve the problem.

CLINT RUBIN: Think of an astronaut, that's basically being _______________weight bearing, or deprived of gravity, as a model for ________________________

So we've just decided, as____________, we're less and less active, and without the proper mechanical signals to the skeleton, our skeleton begins to _______________________.

Now all of a sudden, put yourself up in space, where essentially you're in a vacuum of mechanical signals, you're just not _________________your skeleton at all, that in essence, it's _____________________accelerated ageing.

And so, our goal, with our science and our research is to try to put those mechanical signals back into the astronauts' skeleton, so that in reality they're not going through this rapid ______________________.


Part 4

TOM TILLEY: So how does this new technology work?

CLINT RUBIN: The technology is based on _____________very, very small mechanical ______________the skeleton, the same sort of things that their ____________would do when they're active.

So the astronauts, when using the ______________for 10 minutes per day, would basically be harnessed to it, like with a very, very _____________spring.

And they'd sit there and they'd work on their __________________, or read a book while their skeleton________________________________.


Part 5


TOM TILLEY: How long are some of these astronauts spending in the space stations?

CLINT RUBIN: So these astronauts basically are ... some of them have been up there for____________________. But typically, once they're there for greater than 90 days, or up to six months, they're sort of risking ... they're putting their skeletons at a higher level of risk of ______________.

So again, the challenge that you've got when you're thinking about a _________________ round trip to Mars, is that what happens if you're losing two per cent of your bone per month, that by the time you get to Mars, and the challenge of Mars' _____________, that if you happen to trip and break your____________, or your _______________________while you're up on Mars, that it's quite a __________ to the nearest hospital.

ELIZABETH JACKSON: Professor Clint Rubin from the State University of New York speaking to Tom Tilley.


A – Comprehension Test 3

1) What health problem is the most urgent for those astronauts who travel in zero gravity?

2) What disease are its symptoms like?

3) Where is the new technology currently being tested?

4) How do the signals sent to body affect the astronaut’s bones?

5) What is the challenge of three-year trip to Mars that Professor Clint Rubin refers to

6) What is the critical time of spending in the space station? Why?

7) What can the astronauts be preoccupied with while their skeleton is being stimulated?

8) How often should astronauts use the device? What is the device like?

9) How does this new technology work?

10) What is believed to be the means of accelerated ageing?

11) What happens to our skeleton when we age?

12) What things are astronauts deprived of when they are in the orbit?

13) How long would a round trip to Mars take? What is the human related factor that stops mankind

from travelling to Mars?

14) What percent of their bone mass did the crew members lose per month according to

the article published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research?

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