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Find other noun combinations and translate them. Give examples of your own.

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B. What are the main forms of the verb? Study these uses of verb+ing and translate the examples from the text.

Uses of verb+ing Examples
as an adjective The UK is a leading trading power.
as part of continuous verb form Britain’s oil and natural gas reserves are declining.
as a noun and the subject   Services, particularly banking, account by far for the largest proportion of GDP.
an ‘-ing’ clause after a noun Agriculture producing about 60% of food needs is highly mechanized and efficient.
  after certain verbs* A number of new measures to stimulate the economy and stabilize the financial markets include part-nationalizingthe banking system, cutting taxes etc.
the preposition + ‘-ing’ (words commonly used in this pattern include after, before, besides, by, in, on, since, through, when, while, with, without) Since emerging from recession in 1992, Britain’s economy enjoyed the longest period of expansion.

* 1. Many verbs are followed by ‘-ing’ form.

Verbs of liking and disliking

adore detest dislike dread enjoy fancy like love mind resent

I don’t mind telling you.

Verbs of saying and thinking

admit consider deny describe imagine mention recall suggest recommend understand

Can you imagine buying that car!

Other common verbs

avoid commence delay finish face include involve keep miss postpone practise resist risk save stop

Avoid giving any unnecessary data.

Common phrasal verbs

burst out carry on end up give up go round keep on put off set about look forward to leave off

They kept on working for a while.

Some common phrases

can’t help can’t stand feel like

I can’t help worrying.

NB With the verbs underlined we can also put an object before the ‘–ing’ form.

Can you imagine Helen buying that car!

2. Sometimes we need to decide whether to use a verb in its ‘-ing’ form (doing, working) or infinitive(to do, to work).

The –ing form focuses on:

a) an action or state before the action of the first verb.

He finished doing her accounts yesterday.

b) the activity itself. The second verb functions like a noun.

He recommends selling shares now.

The to-infinitive form focuses on:

a) a purpose

She wishes to ask you a favour.

b) a future situation

They are planning to launch a new project.

3. Some verbs can be followed by either ‘–ing’ form or an infinitive.

attempt begin bother can’t bear can’t stand cease continue deserve fear forget go on hate intend like (=enjoy) love mean prefer regret remember start stop try

I love meeting people. = I love to meet new people.

NB The underlined verbs can be followed by either ‘–ing’ form or an infinitive but the meanings are very different!!!

They stopped making fax machines. (finish an action)

We stopped to get petrol. (finish one action in order to do another one)

C. Look at the italicized words in the sentences below and say what the ways of using “verb+ing” are? Translate these sentences.

1)The UK is steadily moving towards the formation of a knowledge-based economy focusing on high technology, flexible workforce and innovative work solutions. 2) More than 25 percent of entrepreneurs established financial companies, dealing in public shares and bonds. 3) The business and financial services include the trading, investment and real estate sector. 5) This business offers more freedom in making company policies. 6) Processing raw materials is the field of the manufacturing sector.7) Revenues have stopped coming in.8) The English dislike people asking them what they earn.

D. Make up ‘-ing’ clauses.

1) The UK is steadily moving towards the formation of a knowledge-based economy that focuses on high technology, flexible workforce and innovative work solutions.

2) A business plan is a communication tool for entrepreneurs who start a new company or establish a new line of business in an existing company.

3) Statistics indicate that the UK health industry which includes the pharmaceutical industry accounts for more than 48 percent of the gross domestic product.

4) While he testified to the Senate Finance Committee, US trade representative said about broader institutional reforms at the WTO.

5) When people consume goods and services, they provide a basis for further production.

6) Most people who own a house have a mortgage.

E. Open the brackets using an ‘-ing’ form or infinitive.

1) I’m still looking for a job but I hope (find) something soon.

2) They risk (lose) business to their competitors.

3) Please don’t forget (send) the samples.

4) He denies (pass on) any trade secrets.

5) They are planning (launch) a new line of clothes.

6) Does your job involve (meet) a lot of people?

7) They agreed (lend) me some money.

8) We should start (build) partnerships today.

C. Study some other ways of using Verb+ing. Translate the examples.

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