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Ex.1. Визначите час і стан дієслова-присудка. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову.


1. The Merta Manufacturing Corporation employs approximately 3,000 people. 2. About 75% of the work force consists of semiskilled workers. 3. William Hinds the production manager of a medium-sized manufacturing company often remarked that fear is the only way to make people work. Periodically he meets with workers in the shop and criticizes the individual's performance. He even threatens the workers with loss of their jobs. 4. Henry Jarrett holds a similar position in another company. But unlike Hinds, Jarrett believes that you need reward people. He knows that money isn't enough and that people need some form of recognition. He placed a board at the workers' entrance with the names of all production workers on it. At the end of the year, the top gold star winner in each department will have a special recognition prize. 5. The problem of motivation will be always complex and important. It will face organizational goals as well. This problem is also a matter of management's approach. 6. Charles Dow worked toward creating an index comprised completely of industrial stocks.7. Ergonomics comes from the word “ergon” which means work. Now the field of ergonomics covers a rather broad area.8. Usually economic growth proceeds slowly. 9. A steady growth rate of 2 per cent each year will result in a significantly larger and healthier economy in only ten years. 10. Even the most prosperous economies only grow 2-3 per cent a year. Economists usually study economic growth over long periods of time.11. The consumption of some goods actually decreases as income increases and increases as income decreases.


1.A non-profit organization also provides goods and services to the economic system, but does not have profit as an objective. 2. A limited partner invests money in the business but does not have any management responsibility or any liability for business losses. 3. First the corporation pays tax on income before it can distribute any to stockholders. 4. An insurance agent will explain all the risks associated with the small business and how to cover them most efficiently with insurance and other means. 5. Often a local university has business professor who will advise small business people for a small fee. 6. SBA (small business administration) also made direct loans to select small business and guaranteed loans for small business with special problems with the bank.

Ex.2. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову. Зверніть увагу на те, що сполучення used to вживається для вираження повторюваної дії в минулому і перекладається: звичайно, маючи звичку.


1.The company used to operate an express delivery service throughout the U.K. 2. One large exporter used to sell goods to over 50 companies around the world on an ex work basis. 3. Damage can occur in transmit and may happen, for example, when an exporter used to dispatching heavy machinery, sends his customers some delicate artifacts as Christmas presents. 4. While on business trip, he used to call me every day. 5. Financists used to measure the collective performance of specific groups of stocks. 6. Ukrainian Parliament passed the law to reduce the clerks in government units which used not to come true. 7. On the contrary the number of these clerks used to enlarge to thousands of people. 8. The IBM board of directors used to hire only high-skilled programmers, system operators and other software specialists.


1.Employees need to feel that their manager is constant in what they are trying to achieve and that his decision making leads to mutual profit and progress.2. Whenever a country imports or exports goods and services, money returns to the exporting nation, and money flows out of the importing nation. 3. A government allows its citizens to produce and export those things they are best at and to import the rest. 4. Some trade barriers will always exist as long as any two countries have different sets of laws. 5. However, when a country decides to protect its economy by erecting artificial trade barriers, the result is often damaging to everyone, including those people whose barriers were meant to protect. 6. The total contract sum includes the equipment, engineering FOB, documentation. 7. The prices are constant for the duration of the contract. 8. The Seller sold and the Buyer bought the machinery, materials and services last week. 9. What organization will consider trade barriers between Ukraine and Russia? 10. The Great Depression of the 1930s spread around the world when the USA decided to erect trade barriers to protect local producers.11. As other countries retaliated, trade stopped, workers lost their jobs, and the world entered into a long period of economic decline.


Ex.3. Перекладіть речення на українську /російську мову.


1. The Ukrainian Parliament passed the law determining the banking system in 1991. 2. The National Bank of Ukraine conducts a uniform monetary, credit, currency policy. 3. There exist nearly 230 commercial banks in Ukraine. Their main functions include monetary deals with public organizations and private citizens. 4. In volume of business the London Stock Exchange offers the largest range of services. It ranks third after New York and Tokyo. 5. The revolution of 1688 in England created political stability and a wave of financial experimentation. 6. Paterson proposed a loan of $1,200,000 to the government, in return Paterson demanded 8%. 7. The Bank of England continued to occupy Grocer’s Hall for nearly 40 years. 8. The Bank of England started its monetary policies in 1694. 9. The main commercial banks Barclay Bank, Midland Bank, and National Westminster Bank perform trading operations with millions of securities daily. 10. In the 18th century the Bank developed as a government bank. Four-fifth of its business and profits came from the government connection. 11. As in most other developed countries, monetary policy operates in the UK mainly through the price of money – in other words, the rate of interest. 12. Many people think that rich people do not pay any taxes; they use tax shelters to avoid them.


Ex.4. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на переклад підрядих речень часу і умови, які вводяться такими сполучниками: if - якщо, unless- якщо тільки ... не, provided that - за умови якщо, when - коли, untill,till - доти поки ... не, as soon as - як тільки, as long as - поки, before - перед тим , як.Пам’ятайте, що всі речення,як головні так і підрядні перекладаються в майбутньому часі.


1.If the price of this comodity becomes more expensive than today's price, I'll subsidize the difference for you. 2. If the price of your commodity drops below today's price, I'll pay you the difference to cover your loss. 3. I'll inform you about the Dow Jones and Industrial Average as soon as I know the formula of stock prices of 30 major industrial companies. 4. If I am free on weekend we'll be able to discuss the agenda of the conference. 5. As soon as you prove the impossibility of carrying out this obligation you will not bear responsibility for it. 6. If the poor spend a larger fraction of their income on alcohol, as figure suggests, they will bear a disproportionately large share of the tax. 7.If the price of CDs rises from $15 to $20, income will face a new budget constraint. 8. If the price elasticity of demand for gasoline is 5, then this price increase will lead to a fall in quantity demanded of 10 per cent.


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