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Ex.1. Визначте форми інфінітива:
to manage, to be represented, to have determined, to be improving, to have been distributed, to have expended, to be ensured, to pay, to be solved.
Ex.2. Перекладіть наступні речення, звертаючи увагу на форму інфінітива.
I am happy to help you.
I am glad to have helped him.
He was glad to have been helped.
He is happy to have been helping them.
I am glad to be helping them.
I am glad to be helped.
Ex.3. Знайдіть еквіваленти таких англійських речень.
I was glad Я був радий
1. to read your new article 1. що прочитав вашу нову статтю
2. to have read your new article 2. читать вашу нову статтю
3. to be read your new article 3. що мені прочитали вашу нову статтю
4. to have been read your new article 4. що мені читали вашу нову статтю
We are happyМи щасливі
1. to take part in the conference 1. що взяли участь у конференції
2. to be taking part in the conference 2. взяти участь у конференції
3. to have taken part in the conference 3. що беремо участь у конференції
4.to have been taking part in the conference 4. що брали і беремо участь у
She is pleased Їй приємно
1. to meet him 1. зустріти його
2. to be met by him 2. що вона його зараз зустрічає
3. to have met him 3. що він її зустрів
4. to have been met by him 4. що він її зустрічає
5. to be meeting him now 5. що вона його зустрічала
6. to have been meeting him 6. що вона його зустріла
Ex.4. Перекладіть речення з інфінітивом на початку речення. Пам'ятайте, що інфінітив у функції обставини цілі перекладається на українську мову зі словами: щоб; для того, щоб, а інфінітив у функції підмета перекладається іменником або неозначеною формою дієслова.
1. To master English it is necessary to work hard. 2 To prove our statement we give you this information. 3 To meet the needs of export-oriented small and medium enterprises is important for the development of a private sector. 4. To secure the bank's stability the National Bank of Ukraine resolved to increase the amount of operating banks. 5. To manage - means to foresee. 6. To have a strong dollar doesn't necessary mean to have a strong economy. 7. To earn a living he became a salesman. 8. To satisfy the needs of consumers means to achieve the objectives of the firm and of society as a whole. 9. To arrange shipment the manufacturer must give full details of the products to the freight forwarder. 10. To get a better understanding of marketing means to look at things from the point of view of the marketing manager. 11. To achieve the objectives of the firm these managers had to make many decisions. 12. To form a North American Free Trade Area the United States has free-trade agreements with Canada, Mexico and Israel.
Ex.5. Перекладіть такі словосполучення і речення. Зверніть увагу на те,що пасивний інфінітив у функції означення перекладається, як правило, підрядним означальним реченням з відтінком майбутності або модальності .
Зразок: The experimental data to be discussed …
Експериментальні дані, що будуть обговорюватися (які повинні бути обговорені) …
1... The data to be obtained... 2. The systems to be tested... 3. The money to be paid... 4. The salaries to be delayed... 5. The problem to be settled... 6. The results to be received may vary considerably... 7. Goods to be transported to Poland are stored at the railway station. 8. The items to be discussed at the next session were already agreed upon. 9. This was not a matter to be easily agreed upon. 10. The Secretary general was the first to raise this question. 11. This question will be discussed at the conference shortly to open in Paris. 12. A few years ago New-York became the first state to provide day care. 13. The need to choose is imposed on us all by our income, wealth and ability to borrow. 14. Safety, rate of return and liquidity are factors to consider. 15. One of the first things to think about when you save money is safety. 16.Eсonomic linkages, currency control and price liberalization are all issues to be determined. 17. Goods to be exported are kept in a warehouse. 18. Importers may wait for up five days for goods to be delivered once they have arrived in the UK.
Ex.6. Перекладіть наступні речення на українську/ російську мову. Зверніть увагу на переклад інфінітива як іменної частини складеного присудка.
Зразок: Our aim is to give them economic support.
Наша мета полягає в тому, щобдати їм економічну підтримку.
(складається в тому, щоб)
1.The task of management accountants is to give management information it needs to make wise decisions. 2. The task of marketing research is to provide management with accurate, reliable, valid and current information. 3. The most important function of the Federal Reserve System is to manage the country's supply of money. 4. The goal was to research new customers of all economic levels. 5. The objective is to establish a leadership position in the market. 6. The first step in any marketing research project is to define the problem. 7. Management creates a team of workers whose specific task is to eliminate the bottleneck. 8. The basic purpose of a business is to produce goods or to provide services and to trade profitably. 9. The main lesson for traders is to avoid dealings with high-risk companies. 10. Britain’s intention is to increase its market share significantly. 11.The aim of this company is to capture a 30 per cent market share. 12. The main purpose of markets and middlemen is to make exchange easier and allow greater time for production, consumption and other activities – including recreation. 13. The objective of a marketing exchange is to receive something that is desired. 14. One purpose of accounting is to help managers evaluate the financial condition and the operating performance of the firm so that they may make better decisions. 15. Another purpose is to report financial information to people outside the firm such as owners, creditors, suppliers, employees. 16. The trend today is to use computers since the process is often repetitive and complex and computers greatly simplify the task.
Ex. 7. Перекладіть речення на українську/ російську мову. Зверніть увагу на переклад інфінітива як частини дієслівного складеного присудка.
Зразок: We are to give them economic support.
Ми повинні дати їм економічну підтримку.
1.They are to provide management with reliable information. 2. A system of internal control is to prevent fraud in the company.3. Something had to be done to increase the productivity.4.I'm sure that nobody is to object to this plan. 5.They are to comment on these proposals. 6.He is to promise that the matter will be looked into.7.The time of shipment was to be agreed upon.8.The terms of payment are to be agreed upon during negotiations.9.The article of the agreement objected to during the negotiations is to be reconsidered.10.It is also important to have a time period established when goods are to be met.11. Managers must constantly decide what to do, how to do it, and whether the results match the original plans. 12. Many goods began to be produced overseas. 13. They tried to foresee all of the things that may happen in the forthcoming year. 14. Exporters and importers have to be certain of receiving documents in good order as quickly as possible. 15. They had to improve quality and expand distribution, all at once. 16. Firms have to restructure and change their management styles to become equally responsive and equally able to produce new products quickly. 17. Periodically you are to evaluate and control your progress to decide whether or not you are meeting your objectives.
Ex.8. Перекладіть речення на українську/ російську мову. Зверніть увагу на функції інфінітива.
1. To achieve these goals means to work much and successfully. 2. To help keep track of income and expenditures, many people use personal budgets. 3. Further education, a car, a business of your own cost far more than you could hope to pay out of current income. 4. For that reason you will want to have a saving plan to help you achieve such goals in the not-too distant future. 5. The next step in preparing a personal budget is to draw up a list of all your sources of income. 6. The next right to which the consumer is entitled is the right to choose. 7. In the 1960s Americans began to express concern about the impact of industrial growth on their nation and on the world. 8. The federal government justified intervention into the economy to protect the environment. 9. Since the mid-20th century, U. S. Policy-makers have attempted to use a mixture of monetary policies and fiscal policies to promote the twin goals of full employment and price stability.10. The idea is to speed up customs clearance so that to reduce it to minimum.11. To achieve the valuable BS (British Standards) 5750 approval, the applicant has to examine all its procedures and then open its doors to BSI (British Standards Institute) inspectors who will assess every aspects of the operation in relation to the standard. 12. They will have to increase their freight rates to compensate for the loss of revenue. 13. This book is valuable because it can help enterpreneurs to avoid expensive mistakes. 14. Marketing is done to satisfy the needs of consumers and achieve the objectives of the firm and of society as a whole.
1. It is difficult to save enough money to start a business and keep it going. 2. The basic concepts are rather easy to understand because you have some experience in organizing. 3. It is essential to ensure that the product or service you wish to promote in each of your selected markets is suited to local requirements. 4. It is much easier to own and manage a business with one or more partners. 5. The papers to be filled to start a cooperation are just the beginning. 6. These describe how the firm is to be operated from both a legal and managerial point of view. 7. Indicate the amount of capital needed to commence or continue operations and describe how these funds are to be used. 8. It also is wise to seek this counsel of other small business people. 9. The problem with some large organization is that communication among units and among managers is simply too slow and complex to compete with smaller companies. 10. The formal system is often too slow and bureaucratic to enable the organization to adapt quickly. 11. It is safe to say that such developments will be as significant as the industrial revolution.
ОБ'ЄКТНИЙ ІНФІНІТИВНИЙ ЗВОРОТ (Complex Object)
N / Pron + V
Іменник у загальному відмінку/ займенник в об'єктному відмінку (me, you, him, her, it, us, them) + інфінітив.
Після дієслів, що виражають сприймання за допомогою органів чуття (to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to observe, to notice та дієслова to make у значенні “примушувати” інфінітив у об’єктному інфінітивному звороті вживається без частки to.
make - змушувати
like- подобатися дієслова бажання, вимоги, прохання
assume- припускати, допускати
believe- думати, вважати
think- думати, вважати
consider - вважати
expect – очікувати, думати дієслова думки, судження, припущення
find - визнавати, знаходити
know - знати
suppose - думати
prove - доказувати
Ex.9.Визначите об'єктний інфінітивннй зворот в наступних реченнях і перекладіть їх на українську/російську мову. Пам'ятаєте, що цей зворот вживається після дієслів, що виражають розумову діяльність, почуття, бажання, припущення, спонукання.
1.He wanted us to visit this exhibition. 2. I expect you to tell me everything. 3. The teacher does not consider him to be a good student. 4. The engineer expected the work to be done in time. 5. The manager caused a cable to be sent at once.6. Everybody knows him to have graduated from the institute two years ago. 7.We watched them carry out the experiment. 8. You can't make me believe that this information is true. 9.The economists of the 19-th century believed the population to increase faster than the ability to provide goods. 10. They expect growth in Europe to remain slow. 11. The IMF expects British unemployment to continue falling next year. 12. They consider Germany, Europe's largest economy, to grow at only 2,1 per cent and France at 1,8 per cent. 13. The IMF reports the deficit to grow to about 2,5 billion next year. 14. The IMF expects world growth to rise to 3.1 per cent next year, thanks to better prospects in both the U.S. and Japan. 15. A flexiplace policy supposes employee to work at home instead of at the office. 16. The employees hope the flexiplace to reduce pressure since they will be able to work at with computer at their own speed. 17. Sales director thinks these payments to be absolutely necessary if the company is going to operate in these countries.18. Many commentators believe the financial situation to become so grave that the government will have to lend money to finish this project. 19. We expect many small companies to begin an export and import once many of the barriers have been removed. 20. They suppose the project to be financed privately though bank loans and an issue of shares. 21. They feel that international business is too important to be mixed in with other courses, and they want courses to be entirely international.22. Many countries want their goods to be exhibited at international fairs. 23. The buyers want the equipment they buy to be in conformity with the latest technical achievements. 24. The sellers made the buyers pay storage expenses. 25. They wanted their goods to be advertised in this magazine. 26. They wanted the defective parts to be replaced free of charge. 27. The manager expected the freight to have come in time without any delay.
Ex.10. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на переклад конструкції for + іменник / займенник + інфінітив. Пам'ятаєте, що ця конструкція звичайно перекладається підрядним реченням із сполучником «щоб» або « для того, щоб»
1. It's necessary for them to reduce these expenditures. 2. Now is the time for group members to discuss each of the proposed solutions in detail, one by one. 3. It's a good policy for large companies to regularly transfer young executives from place to place to give them more experience. 4. The best way to get others to listen carefully to your ideas is for you to listen to theirs. 5. Here is the information for you to think it over. 6. In this area there are great opportunities for shippers to save considerable amounts of money. 7. There are also the easiest kind of business for you to explore in your quest for an interesting career. 8. For firms to produce the same amount as before, they must receive 10 cents more per peck which they pass on to the government. 9. Make it easy for them to communicate. 10 . The tendency is for such managers to become deeply involved in showing others how to do thing, helping them, supervising them, and generally being very active in the operating task. 11. For business to grow and prosper and create abundance, many people would have to be willing to invest their money in business. 12. One of the latest trends in business is for two or more corporations (often from two different countries) to join together to accomplish some objects, such as creating an international car.
СУБ'ЄКТНИЙ ІНФІНІТИВНИЙ ЗВОРОТ
( The Subject Infinitive Complex or Complex Subject)
Підмет + присудок у в активному або пасивному стані + інфінітив
Присудок в реченнях із суб'єктним зворотом може бути виражений дієсловами:
а) в пасивному стані:
is said - кажуть
is expected - очікують (сподіваються)
is known - відомо (як відомо)
is reported - повідомляють (повідомляється)
is considered - вважають (вважається)
is believed - думають
is supposed - припускають
is proved - доведено
is found - встановлено
б) в активному стані:
is likely - мабуть
is unlikely - малоймовірно (навряд чи)
is sure - неодмінно
Ex.11. Визначите суб'єктний інфінітивний зворот в слідуючих реченнях і перекладіть їх на українську/російську мову.
1. The lecture was said to be very interesting. 2. The members of the committee are reported to come to an agreement. 3. The delegation is believed to come at the end of the month. 4. Most of the income you are likely to earn will come from work. 5. This joint-venture company proved to be enormously profitable. 6. Changes are expected to occur in the service market.7. These discoveries are considered to change the marketing management of tomorrow. 8. If losses prove to be greater than the investment, the individual is responsible for paying them. 9. This important problem is sure to be settled very soon. 10. The supervisor is known to be under pressure from above and from below and has to keep contact with other supervisors in other departments and has also a “sideways” pressure.11. The budget is said to have a deficit when proposed expenses are greater than expected income. 12.Much of our income is likely to be used for day-to-day needs. 13. Women who perform household labor aren't considered to be the part of the labor force. 14. Low-value goods are more likely to go by sea than by air. 15. The terms of payment agreed between the buyer and seller are known to be an important factor in the management of cash flow. 16. The award of the BS(British Standards) 5750 registration is considered to be an assurance to customers that quality of a company’s services is of a proven standard. 17. Without proper planning management and evaluation exhibitions are believed to be a complete waste of time.18. Consumers are more likely to place emphasis on style, quality and even “image” than on price.19. Companies which can best satisfy customer needs are believed to survive and make the largest profits.
Ex.12.Перекладіть речення з інфінітивними конструкціями. Памятайте, що Perfect Infinitive перекладається минулим часом.
1. I know them to have fulfilled their programme ahead of schedule. 2. We thought him to have taken part in that experiment. 3. They seem to have finished their work. 4. Their article appears to have been published in the latest issue of the magazine. 5. I knew them to have been through with that experiment. 6. He appears to have read a large number of books on this subject. 7. Judging by what he said he seems to have been working as accountant since last year. 8. This economists were said to have coped with the problem facing the enterprise. 9. He seems to have analysed this report. 10. This experiment is said to have been completed successfully. 11. This process seems to have been introduced long ago. 12.Many psychologists, sociologists considered management to have been very important social phenomenon. 13. She was said to have been promoted to the position of financial director, because of her success. 14. The manager expected the freight to have come in time without delay. 15. A budget was said to have been balanced when expenses were equal to income.
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