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ЧАСИ ГРУПИ PERFECT (Active, Passive)
To have + V3
To have + been + V3
Утворення питальної і заперечної форми
ЧАСИ групи Perfect виражають дію, що відбувалася до певного моменту в теперішньому, минулому і майбутньому часі.
Перекладаються ці часи на українську мову дієсловами доконаного виду і відповідають на запитання - що зробив? , що буде зроблено?
Present Perfect часто вживається з обставинами:
lately , recently, for two years, for a long time, ever, never, just,
already, yet і перекладається на українську мову дієсловом доконаного виду в минулому часі.
Past Perfect і Future Perfect вживається з прийменником by для вказівки моменту часу в минулому або майбутньому.
We have(we've) already finished our work. - Ми вже закінчили свою роботу.
All the data have been collected. - Всі дані були зібрані.
After she had finished to type the letter, she sent it by fax.- Після того, як вона закінчила друкувати лист, вона відправила його по факсу.
We have recently received the letter of credit. - Ми нещодавно одержали акредитив.
The carrier will be delivered the package by tomorrow morning.- Кур'єр доставить пакет до завтрашнього ранку.
By Tuesday I had already drawn up the contract . – До вівторка я вже склала контракт.
The schedule will have been received by you by 5 o'clock. - Графік буде одержаний вами до 5 години.
Пам’ятайте, що з обставинами часу, які вводяться прийменниками since і for Present Perfectозначає дію, яка почалася в минулому і ще не закінчилася. В цьому випадку дієслово перекладається на українську мову дієсловом в теперішньому часі.
E.g. He has known me since 1991.- Він знає мене з 1991року.
They have been engaged in this profitable business for some years. - Вони займаються цим прибутковим бізнесом декілька років.
Ex.12. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на те, що присудок у Present Perfect Tense перекладається на українську мову дієсловом доконаного виду в минулому часі.
1.The use of new technology has created or changed the nature of hundreds of thousands of jobs. 2. We have prepared a breakdown of the contract price. 3. Integrated Programme for Commodities has acted since 1976. 4. I shall have completed the statement by tomorrow afternoon. 5. I'm an employee of Yoodwell Computer Company. This is a typical Friday afternoon at our office. All the employees are working overtime. We haven't gone home because we haven't finished our work yet. Friday is always a very busy day. The secretary hasn't typed two important letters yet. The bookkeeper still hasn't written all the paychecks. The office clerks haven't delivered all the mail yet. And the boss hasn't spoken to three important people who are waiting to see him. I haven't finished my work yet either. I am the custodian, and I still haven't cleaned all the offices. I haven't cleaned them because my co-workers haven't gone home yet! I'm not surprised. As I've said, Friday is always a very busy day at our office.6. The employment buarea has got a lot of information as to what specialists are needed at enterprises in the district.7. We shall have done the greater part of work by the time you get into contract with our office. 8. Marketing middlemen have always been seen by the public with some suspicion.
1.By 1986 many economy problems had receded. 2. U.S. corporations have invested a lot in developing countries to get access to raw materials (such as oil). 3. Goods produced in the U.S. have become more competitive. 4. The adjustment process has been very slow to help many companies and many workers who have already lost their jobs. 5. The EBRD has already become the leading investor in the private sector in Eastern Europe, and in the countries of CIS. 6. The Bank has been keen to assist Ukraine in its initial steps toward independence and market system. 7. He has just called his agent on delivering the goods as fast as possible.8. The manager has signed the letter without any delay. 9. Haven’t you been left the massage? 10. We have received the money order at the general Post Office this morning. 11. Since the dawn of human history, governments have passed laws regulating the prices at which some commodities have been sold. 12. Many organizations have specialized in management which has been described in the previous chapter. 13. Good planning has been done by all managers at every level of the organization. 14. As soon as objectives had been developed, the next step is to begin to move the organization toward the objectives. 15. We have presented the four functions of management, the main of them was controlling.
1. Many doctors, lawyers and individuals and partners in a variety of businesses incorporated. 2. Once a person, partnership or group of individuals have incorporated, they often receive significant tax advantages. 3. SBA (Small business administration) has produced many publications to assist small business people in all areas of management. 4. How is it, that most Third World countries have adopted socialism as their economic model? 5. Have you ever thought about starting your own business? 6. Exports have grown almost proportionally. 7. Imports have grown in recent decades, not only in dollars, but as a percentage of overall production. 8. Branches have been established by the United States in Europe, Japan, Latin America. 9. The United States has become a major borrower, from abroad, but the country also invests heavily oversees.
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