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ЧАСИ ГРУПИ PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Часи групи Perfect Continuous вживаються для вираження тривалої дії, що почалась до визначеного моменту в дійсному, минулому або майбутньому часі , і тривала відомий період часу, включаючи цей момент.
Present Perfect Continuous вживається з такими позначеннями часу: for an hour - протягом часу; for a month - протягом місяця; lately - останній час; since 5 o'clock.
I haven't been reading a lot lately. - Останнім часом я трохи читаю.
She has been teaching English since 1950. - Вона викладає англійську мову з 1950.
We have been working at the fax for an hour. - Ми працюємо над факсом на протязі години.
Ex.13. Перекладіть речення з Present Perfect Continuous на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на те, що присудок перекладається теперішнім часом.
1. Mr. and Mrs. Banks have been having a lot of problems in their apartment recently. 2. For several weeks the bedroom ceiling has been leaking, the refrigerator hasn't been working and the paint in the hallway has been peeling. 3. In addition, they have been taking cold showers since last week because the hot water heater hasn't been working, and they haven't been sleeping at night because the radiators have been making strange noises. 4. Mr. and Mrs. Banks are furious. They have been calling their landlord every day and complaining about their problems.5. He has been promising to help them, but they have been waiting for more than a week and he still hasn't fixed anything at all. 6.You have been following the principles of organization all of you life. 7. The EBRD has been participating in Ukraine’s development since December 1991. 8. Naturally, lobbyists have been providing politicians with information needed to make judgement. 9. Some economists, including Nobel Prize winners have been looking at the problems of the public sector as the inevitable consequence of the political process.
СЛОВНИК ДО ТЕМИ «ВИДО-ЧАСОВА СИСТЕМА АНГЛІЙСЬКОГО ДІЄСЛОВА»
approximately - приблизно
approach - підхід, наближатися
agenda - порядок денний
bear - нести
benefit - благо, прибуток, давати прибуток
breakdown - розлад, розруха
create - створити, творити
commission – комісія
competitive - конкурентний
claim - претензія
custodian – охорона, охоронець
commodity - ( тут) сировина
complain - скарга, скаржитися
cover - покривати, обкладинка
deletion - викреслювання, знищення
discount - знижка
discourage - розладнати
employ - наймати на роботу
entrance - вхід
expensive - дорогий
exchange - обмін, біржа
employee - службовець
fear - боятися, страх
fairness - справедливість
furious - лютий, скажений
goal - ціль
grant - нагороджувати, (тут) надати
intervene - втручатися
insurance - страховка
L/C - аккредитив
level - рівень
leak - протікати
lay off - звільняти, звільнення
merger - злиття ( підприємства )
Mint - монетне подвір'я
melt - плавити
namely - саме
proceed - приступати до чого-небудь
prosperous – квітучий, перспективний
piecework - відрядна робота
penalty - штраф
paycheck - платіжний чек
peel - чистити, лущитися
remark - помічати, зауваження
reward – винагороджувати, нагорода
recognition - визнання
responsibility - відповідальність
receipt [ risi:t ] - розписка, квитанція
release - звільняти
stock - акція
semiskilled - не високого рівня підготовки, не кваліфікований
steady - постійний
subsidize - субсидіювати
strike - ( тут) чеканити
ship - перевозити
shelving system - стелажі
sign - підписувати, знак
statement - звіт
suspicion - підозра
survey - опитування
threaten - загрожувати
toward - по напрямку
in terms of - у перекладі на, відносно чогось
term - термін
whereby - за допомогою
To have (to) зобов’язання
To be (to)
Ought (to )
To be obliged (to)
To be able (to) фізична ,розумова спроможність
To be unable (to)
To be allowed (to) дозвіл
To be permitted (to)
Ex.1. Перекладіть на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на модальні дієслова.
1. You must settle our accounts with our creditors. 2. You needn't send a telex. I'll call them. 3. You should consult a lawyer. 4. You ought to introduce the changes gradually. 5. The goods are to be packed in strong cases. 6. You should be very careful with this equipment. 7. We must export more.8. It might be a good market for our products. 9. We can't let that one failure stop us from trying to break into a new market. 10. In business letters compliments must not be exaggerated, as they may produce the opposite effect and the reader may feel that the writer is being insincere. 11. He was taken from school and for some time he had to help his father in the trade.12. All the preparations should be completed in a week. 13. The scientist was obliged to leave his fatherland as he got no support from the authorities.14. A consumer must allocate (that is , divide) his available income increases among alternative goods. 15. When an individual’s income increases, he has more to spend on consumption. 16. If the government is to obtain more resources individuals have to consume less. 17. Chrysler (firm) was able to obtain loans from private investors and banks, and at a relatively low rate of interest. 18. You might also know that management is much more complex than doing a few tasks. 19. How often have you heard the comment “One of these days we’ll have to get organized”.
Ex.2. Скажіть і напишіть такі речення в Past і Future Indefinite.
The secretary must know how to write business letters.
The secretary had to know how to write business letters.
The secretary will have to know how to write business letters.
1. We must thank the custom officer for his help. 2. This manager must go on business abroad. 3. They must tell him all about this transaction. 4. Accountants must widely use computers as well. 5. They must help the management to make wise decisions.
I can see the sea from my window.
I could see the sea from my window.
I'll be able to see the sea from my window.
1. They can't see the accident. 2. You can leave the resume with the secretary. 3. Computers can do calculations very fast. 4. They can cancel their orders. 5. She can earn her living herself.
He may refer to these figures.
He might refer to these figures.
He will be allowed to refer to these figures.
1. You may come on Sunday. 2. We may fix the date of the appointment. 3. The workers may discuss these problems with the management. 4. He may call on me tonight and take the catalogues. 5. You may change the prices for these goods yourselves.
Ex.3.Перекладіть на англійську мову.
1. Я не можу закінчити роботу сьогодні. 2. Чи можете ви перекласти цей договір на англійську мову? 3. Їй cлід погодитися з їхніми умовами. 4. Вони змогли виконати всі умови договору. 5. Він запитав мене, чи може він взяти мій словник. 6. Ви можете скористатися моїм телефоном. 7. Вам не варто заповнювати цю форму червоними чорнилaми. 8. Стаття була дуже важкою і йому довелося скористатися словником. 9. Він повинен був зробити доповідь на нашому семінарі.
Ex.4. Перекладіть на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на форми еквівалентів модальних дієслів.
1. Some goods and services had to be given up in order to obtain the goods and services you need. 2. This means that consumers are more willing and able to buy larger quantities of goods and services at relatively lower prices. 3. You will not be able to sell all 40 gallons without reducing the price. 4. The management discovered that productivity increased when their employees had the latest information and when they were able to participate in production decisions. 5. All would agree, however, that the productivity of American workers will have to impove if the nation is to maintain its position as the world's leading industrial power. 6. These newer plants were able to draw away some of Intrepid's business by offering up-to-date products at a cost slightly lower than Intrepid's. 7. Intrepid was unable to regain the business it had lost and it was clear that the plant would never return to its former level of production. 8. Not only will workers lose their jobs but town government will probably have to cut back its services to almost nothing. 9. Some rich individuals and some huge corporations were able to avoid paying the income fax altogether.
Поєднання модального дієслова з пасивним інфінітивом
Ex.5. Перекладіть на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на сполучення модального дієслова з Passive Infinitive.
1. All the preparations should be completed in a week. 2. The problem must be settled as soon as possible. 3. Some managers consider that changes ought to be introduced gradually. 4. He insists that the plan should be discussed next week.5. Our catalogues can be sent to you by mail. 6. The accounts must be checked. 7. This information may be got only at our firm. 8. This letter must be sent off at once. 9. The aсcounts had to be checked once more. 10. According to the contract the goods are to be delivered not later than the 15-th of March.
1. Other economists say that the government should leave business alone and let the market determine what goods and services should be produced. 2.If more resources are used to increase the production of computers, then the production of something else that requires those same resources must be cut back. 3. Averages can be computerized in a number of different ways. 4. These may be needed to prove when and where you bought the item and the price you paid for it. 5. While there is nothing that anyone can do to eliminate all risks, there are things that can be done to reduce their costs. 6. Investment can be aimed at increasing productive capacity or at research and development (R&D). 7. R&D can be used to develop new processes, to cut the cost of production and improve productivity. 8. What can't be cured must be endured.9. Love and cough cannot be hid. 10. What is done cannot be undone. 11. Friendship is not to be bought at a fair.
Сполучення модального дієслова з перфектним інфінітивом
Ex. 6. Перекладіть на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на сполучення дієслова з Perfect Infinitive.
1. Some mistakes must have been made in writing this report.2. The expert pointed out that the goods must already have been in a bad condition at the time of dispatch. 3. The expert admits that the goods may have been damaged in transit. 4. You knew that he was ill. You should have called him. 5. You look ill. You oughtn't to have come to the Institute today. 6. He may have come back,but I have not seen him yet. 7.This tax return must have been done by a quallified auditor. 8. We could have made this translation more carefully, if we had had more time. 9. The goods must have been packed very carelessly.
1. He cannot have entrusted this scientific work to a man he has known for such a short period of time. 2. You could not have seen him there because he left the place two months ago. 3. He cannot have occupied this position, he has no experience at all. 4. She knew everything about our plans, she must have listened to our conversation. 5. When tax rates are so high that they discourage investment, the wealth and jobs that might have been created are lost. 6. You shouldn't have invested money into that business, it was too risky. 7. He couldn't have sold his shares, the enterprise was so profitable. 8. The plant could have produced this equipment, they possessed the know-how, but they had problems with material supplies.
ФУНКЦІЇ ДІЄСЛОВА TO BE
Ex.7. Прочитайте текст. Визначите функції дієслова” to be”.
There is a congress in Prague. The theme of the Congress is "Science for Peace and Progress". Scientists from every continent are coming to the Congress. We are economists. There are 14 people on the list. We are from different countries. There are four ladies and 10 gentlemen in our group. One man is not coming, he is ill. The others are coming in a day or two. All members of our group are pleased to be in Prague. The city is wonderful. It is famous for its monuments and museums. The schedule is very busy. We are to take part in sessions, round-table talks, sittings, conferences, discussions. We are to make reports at conferences. We are going to work hard at the Congress. I'm lucky I have been sent to the Congress.
Ex.8. Bизначите функції дієслова “to be” . Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову.
1. The meeting was attended by thousands of people. 2. The law was soon followed by another one. 3. World trade was affected by the war. 4. They were at home last night. 5. Money is anything that is generally acceptable in payment for goods and services. 6. Clearly, your bank book is not money, since you could not buy a ticket to the movies with it. 7. Travelers' checks are checks sold in a variety of denominations by banks and travel agencies. 8. The native Americans were unwilling to exchange food for small pieces of paper and metal. 9. Not only workers are being given a limited voice in managing some companies, but they are also becoming part-owners. 10. Barter is the exchange of one good or service for another.11. Managers are to decide what to do, how to do it, and whether the results match the original plans.12.The salesman main purpose is to sale. 13. Nationalized industries are firms owned wholly by the Government. 14. Some private firms are to be nationalized to rescue them from bankrapcy.15. The objective is to establish a leadership position in the market. 16. The consumer is really king. He is to decide what to buy. 17. Products that fail to satisfy are replaced by more attractive products.
Ex.9. Прочитайте прислів'я, визначите функції дієслова to be, спробуйте знайти еквіваленти в рідній мові.
1. A good beginning is half a battle. 2. Laughter is the best medicine.3. The golden age was never the present age. 4. The road to hell is paved with good intentions. 5. A man is known by the company he keeps. 6. Friendship is not to be bought at a fair. 7. Rome was not built in a day. 8. Men are not to be measured by inches.9. To know everything is to know nothing. 10. There is no rule without exсeption. 11. Where there is a will, there is a way.
ФУНКЦІЇ ДІЄСЛОВА TO HAVE
To have + іменник
They have similar ideas on the firm’s expansion.
Смислове дієслово Вони мають таке саме уявлення про те, як розшити
They have concluded a long-term contract.
Вони уклали довготривалий контракт.
To have + Інфінітив з to (зобов’язання)
Модальне дієслово The proprietor has to bear all the risks of the business.
Власник повинен взяти на себе весь ризик щодо
Ex.10. Визначте різноманітні функції дієслова "to have" і перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову.
1. For five years I have been studying international law at the University. 2. Britain has an economic system based on private enterprise and private supplies of capital. 3. The National Bank has a solid reputation. 4. Britain today has a mixed economy. 5. We had many difficulties in solving this problem. 6. Certain commodities have a wider market than others. 7. He has spent time in searching the place and finding out people's needs and then developed a product accordingly.8. Once a standard of quality has been established by a company, it should not be lowered, and it is the responsibility of workers and managers in that company to see that it is not.9. The material chosen has to have a reasonable life expectancy. 10. Nationalized industries don't have to make profit.11. When a West Germany firm imports American wheat, it has to pay for the purchase in dollars. 12. Modern marketing has to do with the building. 13. As the number of privately owned businesses has increased, economists have begun to refer to those nations as having mixed economies.
Ex.11. Перекладіть речення на англійську мову, використовуючи різноманітні функції дієслова “to have” .
1. Вони будуть змушені продати цей товар якнайшвидше, тому що він швидко псується. 2. Цей товар рекламують ось уже декілька місяців. 3. Вам слід було повернути цей товар , він був ушкоджений під час транспортування. 4. Вони провели дослідження ринку і мають задовільні результати. 5. Давайте пообідаємо разом і обговоримо питання, які нас цікавлять. 6. Більшість країн мають змішану економіку. 7. За останні декілька років ціни підвищувалися двічі. 8. Так як компанія розширилася, їй доведеться найняти нових службовців.
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