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EXERCISES (ВПРАВИ). Ex.1.Проаналізуйте складні речення і визначите типи підрядних речень, що входять до їхнього складу




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Ex.1.Проаналізуйте складні речення і визначите типи підрядних речень, що входять до їхнього складу. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову.

I

1.The secret behind Lincoln's success is that he pays his employee well for job.2.The question is who has to make decisions.3. Though you don't know all in detail you have to write a report. 4. When banks in London begin trading at 8 a.m. they can deal with banks in Tokyo, Hong Kong, whose trading day is just ending. 5. Mr. Martin has a much bigger emergency to cope with it as soon as he arrives. 6.The right to property means that people can buy, sell and use land, buildings, inventions. 7. Decisions are made by business executives and politicians who may not seek economic advice. 8. There was an economist who understood the American dream and helped to shape it, even though he was not an American. 9. Our economy looks as if it was weak. 10. A central policy for any company is how to invest its capital. 11. Even if there is no exchange, marketing activities have occurred. 12. An accountant who is employed by a business is said to be in management accounting.13. Management knows what it wants to accomplish, but more often than not successful accomplishment of those goals is outside the control of the firm. 14. When creativity is more important than brute force, cash is necessary but not sufficient.

 

II

1.Human beings finally figured out how wealth may be produced in a sustained systematic way. 2. Microeconomics can also be challenging to study because it teaches principles that can be used in everyday buying and selling. 3. One reason is that saving depends on income as well as interest rates. 4. Countries with large debts can run into big trouble if interest rates go up and economic growth slows. 5. Although there has been a steady increase in the use of credit and debit cards, the level of notes and coins in circulation continues to rise. 6. Despite his background in financial management and his training as an accountant the author has carefully focused on all functional areas, not just on finance and accounting. 7. Every financial statistic can be made to look bad, although the converse is not always true. 8. Even if we can forecast foreign exchange rates, we cannot control them.



III

1.Macroeconomics can be a fascinating subject to study because it looks at such important issues as whether or not taxes should be raised; the problem of inflation and depression and much more. 2.A documentary letter of credit is an agreement with banks, made by a buyer to pay a seller, provided certain conditions are fulfilled. 3.People are free to choose where they want to work, whether or not they will join union and what career they want to follow.4. With a stable general level individual price signal may be read more clearly and more rational decisions taken about whether to save or to borrow, whether to invest or to consume, and what and when to produce. 5. A person is economically free if he can do what he wishes with his property, time and effort. 6.Whatever decision is taken, RMP (Royal Mail Parcel) is considered as a potential carrier of small parcel traffic. 7. Some goods require special handling, perhaps, because they are delicate or because they have a potential danger. 8. Engineers should organize the loading into the lorry or aircraft and arrange to monitor the shipment until it is delivered. 9. The range of goods classified as dangerous is extremely wide, although the largest single category consists of chemicals. 10. There are certain commodities which can be shipped in cargo-only aircraft but cannot be carried on passengers flights. 11. A short study of the conditions will show why independent insurance is required. 12. The insured company must continue to behave as if the goods were uninsured at all times.



 

Ex.2. Виділіть підрядне речення-підмет і визначте його позицію в наступних реченнях. Дайте правильний переклад цих речень. Пам’ятайте, що підрядні речення-підмети виконують функцію підмета і вводяться сполучниками that (що), whether (чи), whose(чий),what ( що, який),which (коли),where (де, куди), why(чому), how( як). Підрядні речення-підмети передують присудку головного речення.

What I need is a piece of advice. - Що мені потрібноце порада.

Якщо речення вводиться сполучником that (що), тоді переклад слід розпочинати зі слів: те, що …:

That the study of every day life has led Marshall to the definition of economics is very essential. – Те, що вивчення повсякденного життя привело Маршалла до визначення економіки, дуже важливо.

1.Whether he works or not makes little difference for the firm's income. 2. How the system will work depends on many factors. 3. That a person must obey the law is so evident and essential for functioning of any economical system. 4. It is no matter how else the organization runs itself cost -effectively and sensibly, if the product is not selling well. 5. Whether we are satisfied with our experiences, however, depends greatly on the individuals who manage the organization. 6. Whether morale correlates all that closely with productivity is an open question. 7. Employees should be able to see that what they are doing as individuals is contributing to meeting the goals of the organization. 8. In the long run whether an item is capitalized as an asset or expensed, immediately makes no difference in cumulative income. 9. But because it is difficult does not stop us from trying. 10. We know that we hope will happen, and past experience can provide some overall parameters.



Ex.3. Виділіть підрядні речення-присудки в слідуючих реченнях. Перекладіть їх на українську мову. Пам’ятайте, що підрядне-присудок як правило стоїть після дієслова- зв’язки to be

1.The trouble was whether we could manage it ourselves or not. 2. The fact was that he hadn't paid the taxes.3. The question is who has to pay for goods.4. The argument is that the requirements establishing the Euro would force countries to make reforms that would revitalize their economies. 5. The majority European's view is that the Euro is going to be a weak currency. 6. The advantage of FCP (Freight Carriage Paid) terms is that the exporter is providing a partial delivery service to the customer. 7. The advantage is that a succession of uncovered small claims can be expensive 8. The important thing to remember is that no one is born with management knowledge. 9. The major reason that HR (Human Resources Department) manager should be familiar with the contents of this book is that almost every cash decision affects more than one department. 10. The first thought anyone has, when dealing with cash, is that it is responsibility of the “numbers guys”. 11. The most common perception of Controllers is that they are ones who go out on the battlefield after the fighting has stopped. 12. The second lesson is that even professionals, in this case an appraisal company dealing with its own assets, do not do everything. 13. The belief is that in striving to meet a tight budget, employees will perform better than otherwise. 14. One of the basic principles of budgeting is that a business plan should be internally consistent. 15. On the contrary, the thesis of this book is that each department should determine its proposed budget most carefully. 16. The important thing about this discussion is that almost everything affecting sales is external to our organization. 17. But in terms of the impact of business decision on cash flow the key point is that inflows inherently are both hard to forecast and somewhat uncertain in amount and timing.

 

Ex.4. Визначте тип підрядного речення і перекладіть слідуючі речення на українську/російську мову, приймаючи до уваги те, що один і той же сполучник може вводити речення різних типів підпорядкування

1. It is essential that the original bill of lading is passed on to the freight forwarder so that the customs formalities can be completed. 2. In between are systems that are based on private exchange and some governmental ownership. 3. The bad news is that as wages increase so does the price of everything else. 4 .Every trader must decide whether to accept the excess on offer. 5. Economists don't worry much about whether their subject should be considered a science. 6. The question whether it was he or his enemy was hotly discussed. 7. The trouble was whether we could sign the documents by ourselves or not. 8. Whether existing confidence in the income statement is well founded is a matter of conjecture. 9 .What we need is the completing of our plan. 10. The question is what must be done to regulate unstable position in the world's market. 11. I want to be paid for what I do. 12. When people discuss what share of the «economic pie» should go to government, they mean what percent of GNP(Gross National Product) should be spent on defense, welfare,education. 13. Managers must decide what to do ,how to do, and whether the results match original plans.

Ex.5. Перекладіть речення на українську/ російську мову. Зверніть увагу, що ознакою безсполучникового додаткового підрядного речення є сполучення дієслова та іменника (займенника) або прикметника – іменної частини складеного присудка та іменника, за яким йде дієслово в особовій формі. На українську мову такі речення перекладаються додатковими підрядними реченнями зі сполучником “що”.

Наприклад:

The bank must ensure the currency maintains as stable as possible. - Банк повинен підтвердити, що валюта залишається настільки стабільною наскільки можливо.

1.How to check a banknote is genuine. 2.One can say the value of money goes in the opposite direction of the general price level. 3.If unemployment rises or food prices explode , people say economists don't know what they are doing. 4. He knows wages increase and so does the price of everything else. 5. I believe I am just the kind of person you are looking for. 6. We didn't know he hadn't spoken to the chief. 7.A lecturer reminds a retailer is a marketing middleman who sells to consumers. 8. He underlines whole salers are more efficient at performing the distribution functions. 9. It is obvious people can produce both services and goods. 10. This means the trader chooses the methods of transport and the carrier, and selects the service which meets the requirements of all parties.11. The chief is sure a company is successful if its revenues exceed its expenses. 12. He was awfully right thinking expenses were the opposite of revenues in that they resulted in a decrease in owner's equity. 13. We inform you we have decided to accept your proposal. 14. In the same way, when the total Quality Movement was getting started, most managers really thought it was the responsibility of the Inspection Department or Quality Departmen, if that function had recently been given a new name. 15. The author confesses he does not have the answer. 16. Some people think the budget for next year should be easy to accomplish, so that employees will feel good about their performance. 17. In other words we know we will never be absolutely right in our sales projections but experience suggests all the errors won’t go in one direction.

 

Ex.6. Перекладіть речення на українську/ російську мову. Пам’ятайте, що ознакою безсполучникового означального підрядного речення є сполучення двох іменників або іменника та займенника, за яким йде дієслово в особовій формі, і перекладається таке речення означальним підрядним реченням зі сполучником “який”.

Наприклад:

The work people undertake is called economic activity. – Робота, яку виконують люди, називається економічною діяльністю.

1.The work people undertake either provides what they need or provides the money with which they can buy essential commodities.2. The State provides all the services the citizens require.3. The information accounting provides is the basis for such decisions.4. It is becoming increasingly difficult for American employers to find workers qualified to perform the tasks their business demands.5.The amount they earn is known as the rate of return.6. It may influence how much you earn the type of home you live in, the clothes you wear , the interests and hobbies you pursue, even the political beliefs you hold.7.Another influence on packing requirements is the type of handling the goods will receive during their journey. 8. These decisions depend on the personal values and interests you already have.9. The cost to my customer is not necessarily the price I change. 10. If you receive a note you believe to be counterfeit, you should take it to the nearest police station as quickly as possible.11. Shippers send all their cargo for the USA mainly because this is the one place everyone has heard of. 12. Stockholders pay tax on the income (dividends) they receive from the corporation. 13. One reason people go to college is that college prepares them to become managers. 14. One factor distinguishes organizations that adopted Total Cash Management from the way most companies are run. 15. You might argue that this is the way things should be.

 

УМОВНІ РЕЧЕННЯ

ТИП ГОЛОВНЕ РЕЧЕННЯ ПІДРЯДНЕ РЕЧЕННЯ
1-реальна умова   2 тип - малоймовірна умова   3 тип - нереальна умова shall [will] + Indefinite Infinitive We shall sign contracts- Ми будемо підписуватиконтракт   Should ( would+ could might Indef. Infinitive We should sign contracts - Ми бпідписували контракти Форма дієслова в Present Indefinite Tense if they give us a good discount - якщо вони будуть давати нам вигідні знижки.   Форма дієслова в Past Indefinite if they gave us a good discount - якби нам давали вигідні знижки.
Should,would(could,might )+ Perfect Infinitive We should have signed the conracts - Ми б підписали контракт Форма дієслова в Past Perfect if they had given us a good discount - якби вони дали вигідну знижку.

Дієслівні форми головного та підрядного речення 2 і 3 типу перекладаються дієсловами минулого часу з часткою “б” (умовний спосіб).

Наприклад:

1) If the situation permitted, we should test this new method. - Якби дозволила ситуація, ми випробували б цей новий метод.

2) Unless the situation had been favourable, they couldn’t have applied the new method last year. - Якби обстановка не була сприятливою, вони не змогли б використати новий метод в минулому році.

Ex.7. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову звертаючи увагу на типи умовних речень.

 

1.It would have been impossible to cope with these difficulties if it had not been for the preliminary work carried out by our scientists,designers. 2. People reason that if we could only get rid of middlemen we could greatly reduce the cost of every thing we buy. 3. Owner's equity is also known as a residual equity because it is what would be left over if all the liabilities were paid. 4. Unless they do not accept our terms we shall not sign the contract. 5. Our lives might be more enjoyable if we had such things as radio, books and toys. 6. The money supply is given by the deposit liability of the banking system and it is temping to suppose that if there were a stable relationship between some or all of these liabilities and the”base money”requirements of the banking system, then the authorities might be able to control the money supply by controlling the amount of base money. 7. If the overall movements of funds is in the other direction(perhaps because the government is paying its bills),then the banking system will be in suplus. 8. It would be more cost effective and environmentally friendly if notes were shredded rather then burnt. 9. If a currency were to weaken excessively, it would put upward pressure on domestic inflation. 10. If bank wanted to slow the growth of money and credit, it would present the notes for collection in gold. 11. If all Europe's countries had met these requirements, it's questionable whether their economies would have surged.12.If we reported sales revenue in the financial statements based on cash receipts from customers we would not recognize that we have shipped goods, or provided services, for which our customers owe us money. 13. If the original estimate were off, the optimistic view turned out in error, additional charges to expense would be required.

 

ІНВЕРСІЯ

В умовних підрядних реченнях 2 і 3 типу сполучник if (і інші сполучники , що вводять умовні підрядні речення) перед дієсловами (be, have, should, would, could) може бути опущений.У цих випадках у підрядних реченнях вживають зворотний порядок слів(інверсія). Ці речення є безсполучниковими умовними реченнями.

Наприклад: Could they have set up a system of internal control,they wouldn't have had any troubles around their company. - Якби вони змогли створити систему внутрішнього контролю,у них не було б проблем із фірмою.

Ex.8.Перекладіть складні речення до складу яких входить безсполучникове умовне речення на українську/ російську мову.

1. Had you written you letter earlier we should have answered it at once. 2. Had you more time at your disposal ,we should certainly ask you to take part in the work. 3. Were she invited to that conference ,she would make a report. 4. Were I very rich person, I would buy a plane. 5. Were he in complete charge of the company, he would make decisions. 6. Should I've thought of a good way of saving money, I could have been a rich man. 7. Could they have the chance to work abroad, they would learn English. 8. Had it not changed its production methods, it might have had to go out of the bussiness. 9. Should I have a serious disagreement with my boss, I wouldn't be invited to the party.10. Had small high technology companies established themselves around Heathrow Airport , London the receipt of cargo could have be more easily and quickly arranged.

 

Ex.9. Використайте інверсію, де можливо і перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову.

1. If you are a business major, it’s almost certain you will be required to take a course in managerial accounting. 2. If the economy remains stable, Latin America’s largest and most diverse corporate sector will begin to invest heavily. 3. Countries with large debts can run into big trouble if interest rates go up and economic growth slows. 4. If the interest charges exceeded the freight costs it might be a good idea to send the consignment by air. 5. Fresh fruit, vegetables and flowers would have arrived in stable condition, if they had been sent by air freight. 6. If the service were totally reliable, this would not matter, but unfortunately, no one can be quite certain how long it will take for a parcel to be delivered. 7. If sterling is strong the Bank can sell sterling for foreign currencies. 8. If you were a bookkeeper, the first task you would perform would be to divide all of the firm’s paperwork into meaningful categories. 9. If there were no audits accounting statements would be less reliable. 10. If a firm is unable to secure a long-term loan from a lender or issue bonds to investors, it often turns to the last alternative , for long-term financing: equity capital.

 

Словник до розділу « Складне речення»

to cope with – впоратися з будь-чим

invention- винахід

to accomplish - виконувати, закінчувати

brute - грубий

to figure out –уявляти (тут)

equlibrium- рівновага

sustained- безперервний

debt- борг

interest rates-процентні ставки

coin – монета

parcel - посилка

handling – поводження з будь-чим

loading - відвантаження

shipment – перевезення, доставка вантажу

cargo-only aircraft - вантажний літак

insurance – страхування

to run – вести справу

cumulative income - загальний прибуток

freight – фрахт, вантаж

bill of loading – рахунок завантаження

excess – зайва вага

to revitalize - оживляти,повертати до життя

to fulfill - виконувати

evidence - вірогідність

to attain – домагатися

confidence - впевненість

conjecture – припущення

genuine – справжній, достовірний

to confess – визнати провину

an error – помилка

retailer – продавець в роздріб

liabilities – пасиви

assets – активи

cash – готівка

middleman – посередник

whole saler – оптовик

stockholder – акціонер

rate of returns – рівень виручки

to pursue – дотримуватись чого-небудь

political beliefs – політичні переконання

counterfeit – підробний

to argue - аргументувати

preliminary work - підготовча робота

owner's equity - приватна власність

residual equity - залишкова власність

a reward - нагорода

to shred - рвати на шматки

to burn(burnt,burnt) - спалювати

to tempt – приваблювати

surplus – прибуток

to surge – підійматися

to owe – бути в боргу

to be in charge of – нести відповідальність

to survive – виживати

consignment – партія товарів

to secure – забезпечувати

 

NON-FINITE FORMS

НЕОСОБОВІ ФОРМИ ДІЄСЛОВА

 

І Н Ф І Н І Т И В

ФОРМИ ІНФІНІТИВА

 

Infinitive Active Voice Passive Voice
Indefinite to study to be studied
Perfect to have studied to have been studied
Continuous to be studying -
Perfect Continuous to have been studying

 

 

ФУНКЦІЇ ІНФІНІТИВА У РЕЧЕННІ

1. Підмет

To read much is to know much. Багато читати значить багато знати.

 

2. Підмет після звороту із займенником it

It is necessary to read this article. Необхідно прочитати цю статтю.

 

3. Частина простого присудка

I'll read much in summer. Влітку я буду багато читати.

 

4. Частина дієслівного складеного присудка

We must read much. Нам треба багато читати.

I began to read much when I was ten. Я почав багато читати, коли мені було десять років.

5. Іменна частина складеного присудка

My wish is to read much. Моє бажання - багато читати.

(Моє бажання (складається) полягає в тому, щоб багато читати. )

6. Додаток

I decided to read much. Я вирішила багато читати.

 

7. Означення

This is an article to be read very attentively. Ось стаття, яку треба читати дуже уважно.

In my grade I was the first to read this article. У моєму класі я перша прочитала цю статтю.

 

8. Обставина


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