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INFINITIVE. GERUND. PARTICIPLE




:
  1. ABSOLUTE PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION
  2. FORMS OF PARTICIPLE
  3. II. PARTICIPLE
  4. Infinitive Past Indefinite Past Participle
  5. Participle
  6. The Absolute Participle Construction
  7. The Participles
  8. TRANSLATING THE PARTICIPLE
  9. (The Participles)

5. 1. leave 2. repaired 3. to type 4. call 5. painted 6. write 7. lie 8. sent 9. cut 10. to sign 11. leave 12. to wash 13. fixed 14. published 15. find

8. 1. do 2. sing 3. to swim 4. to live 5. to go, rain 6. say. understand 7. to see 8. repeat 9. use 10. ask, use 11. to get, start 12. remember 13. to do 14. to go, wait 15. leave 16. open 17. (to) argue 18. to smoke 19. (to) move 20. play 21. to accept

22. to arrive 23. know 24. wait 25. tell 26. send 27. go, to meet 28. to have 29. leave, want, to take 30. to go, make, go 31. go, to visit 32. to know, to live 33. not to inform, (to) disobey 34. come, stay 35. take, make, drink 36. to disappoint, let, have

9. 1. to be 2. wish to make 3. want, to know 4. remember, look 5. to learn, to know 6. to be 7. not to feed 8. see, to speak 9. to travel, to arrive 10. know, to use, show 11. to sign

12. open/opening, move/moving 13. to make, believe 14. to have missed, go 15. shake/shaking 16. to try, to come 17. go, promise, not to tell 18. like to come, walk 19. to ask, to tell, to get 20. to put, (to) keep 21. to read, answer 22. show, to open 23. say, to say 24. to be 25. want, to tell, to call, to discuss 26. to give, see/be seeing, not to forget 27. open/opening, throw/throwing 28. to carry, help 29. to pick, to handle 30. crash/crashing, burst/bursting 31. to do, wait, to let 32. crow/crowing 33. tell, be, to check 34. come, go, be/have been 35. to learn 36. be, look

11. 1. too young to have 2. too cold to bathe 3. so kind as to answer/kind enough to answer 4. too old to wear 5. long enough to reach 6. enough money to live on 7. too furious to speak 8. hot enough to boil 9. foolish enough to tell/so foolish as to tell 10. thin enough to slip 11. too ill to eat 12. too wide to get through 13. strong enough to dance on 14. too terrified to move 15. big enough to harm 16. strong enough to keep 17. too deep to wade 18. too lazy to get up 19. early enough to catch 20. so good as to forward/good enough to forward 21. thick enough to walk on 22. too drunk to answer 23. too cold to have 24. rash enough to set off/so rash as to set off 25. high enough to see 26. old enough to understand 27. too snobbish to talk 28. too thick to push through 29. too mean to give 30. too impatient to listen 31. too tired to walk 32. not dark enough to see 33. hot enough to fry 34. too bitter to eat 35. so kind as to turn down/kind enough to turn down 36. too selfish to put



12. 1. to leave 2. only to find 3. You are to go 4. so kind as to lend/kind enough to lend 5. to mend/to be mended 6. to hear 7. for him to hear 8. It was stupid of me to be rude 9. to play with 10. for everyone to know 11. to sit 12. only to find 13. It was very brave of him to rush 14. to wear 15. He is expected to broadcast 16. to cook in 17. only to learn 18. to open it with 19. seems to have been committed 20. Is he likely to arrive 21. just about to leave 22. You are to be met 23. for them to have 24. He is said to have been 25. to continue the strike 26. kind enough to translate/so kind as to translate 27. for us to leave 28. It was stupid of you to sign 29. She is said to have 30. to swim 31. He is believed to be 32. He appears to have been killed 33. to realize 34. The earth is said to have been 35. only to discover 36. The murderer is said to be hiding

13. (should is replaced by ought to.} 1. must have been 2. can't/couldn't have seen, must have dreamt 3. may/might have broken 4. needn't have carried 5. should have gone 6. were to have been 7. can't/couldn't have been, must have been 8. shouldn't have eaten 9. may/might not have understood 10. needn't have given 11. must have escaped 12. shouldn't have lied 13. may/might have been, can't/couldn't have been 14. must have cooked 15. needn't have brought 16. must have told 17. was to have unveiled 18. may/might have been 19. must have met 20. should have done 21. can't/couldn't have caught 22. needn't have opened 23. must have betrayed 24. shouldn't have driven 25. could have climbed 26. would have asked 27. should have been abolished 28. shouldn't/needn't have boiled 29. was to have played 30. may/might have been 31. should have taken 32. must have had 33. may/might/could have fallen 34. must have been 35. needn't have translated 36. shouldn't have looked



14. (I'd is replaced by I should. Should (obligation) is replaceable by ought to in nos 5, 9, 13, 17. May/might in the affirmative is normally replaceable by could.} 1. was to have married 2. needn't have repeated 3. seems to have been 4. were to have set out 5. shouldn't have eaten, may/might have been (may indicates that the danger is still present; might that it is over) 6. must have worked 7. needn't have brought 8. I'd like to have bathed/I'd have liked to bathe/I'd have liked to have bathed 9. should have written 10. wouldn't have come 11. might/should have told, would have gone, wouldn't have liked 12. may/might have been, can't/couldn't have been 13. needn't/shouldn't have bought 14. can't/couldn't have been 15. seems to have enjoyed 16. must have been 17. should have stood 18. was to have gone 19. I'd like to have photographed /I'd have liked to photograph/I'd have liked to have photographed 20. must have been 21. may/might have been 22. can't/couldn't have been driving 23. must have taken 24. may/might not have 2S I'd like to have gone/I'd have liked to go/I'd have liked to nave gone 26. can't/couldn't have seen 27. may have been 28 may/might have been started 29. must have had 30. may/might have read, can't/couldn't have read, must have told 31. may/might have been waiting 32. must have misheard 33! might have borrowed 34. I'd like to have asked/I'd have liked to ask/I'd have liked to have asked 35. must have been 36. is said to have been



23. 1. losing 2. redecorating 3. telling 4. making 5. laughing 6. waiting 7. speaking 8. listening 9. reading 10. being sent

11. worrying 12. crying 13. travelling 14. arriving 15. taking

24. 1. meeting 2. eating 3. having seen 4. getting married

5. speaking 6. staying 7. smoking 8. increasing 9. travelling 10. following

25. 1. The customer accused the cashier of trying ... 2. Many people succeed in passing ... 3. Concert-goers are asked to refrain from smoking ... 4. The solicitor dissuaded his client from taking ... 5. If ..., you can't blame him for making ... 6. The hijackers prevented the passengers from leaving ... 7. The student apologized for missing (or having missed) ... 8. Visitors to the Zoo are prohibited from feeding ... 9. Despite ..., the party bore insisted on telling me ... 10. The police suspect the owner of the store of starting ...

26. 1. eating starchy foods 2. going abroad 3. making school furniture 4. giving the jury clear directions 5. growing their own vegetables 6. putting everything back in its place 7. introducing the new topic immediately 8. entering my house ... 9. deciding whether to take legal action 10. swimming in that particular part of the sea/being carried away by dangerous currents 11. putting the assistant to a great deal of trouble/buying anything

12. taking fewer subjects/getting a good result in the examination

27. 1. following such a course of action 2. doing the same thing day after day 3. bullying younger boys 4. walking unaccompanied in the park at night 5. bringing up his children 6. pointing out other people's faults 7. disobeying the orders of a superior officer 8. locking building at night? 9. saving money: instead of hoping to win it on football pools 10. satisfying the demands of the local residents 11. going to the Arctic for a holiday 12. doing as they had originally planned

29. 1. seeing 2. having 3. to meet 4. to work 5. to see

6. waiting 7. not to touch 8. to lock, going 9. not to speak 10. behaving 11. to explain, to listen 12. smoking 13. to know 14. to disguise, dressing 15. to wait 16. showing, to work 17. walking, catch up 18. to understand 19. exceeding 20. playing, doing 21. to inform 22. overhearing 23. smoking, to

smoke 24. going, saying 25. writing, waiting 26. to avoid being 27. giving, to speak 28. to persuade, to agree 29. cleaning, to be cleaned, to do 30. shutting, sitting 31. sneezing, sitting 32. talking, to finish 33. to give up jogging 34. stopping, forgetting to wind 35. realizing, helping 36. to make, rubbing

30. 1. answering, ring 2. letting, chase, being 3. driving, being driven 4. to start looking 5. lending, to cash 6. Lying, sitting 7. to go 8. neglecting to take 9. to show, to use 10. going, to see/seeing 11. telephoning, asking, to look 12. hearing, not to enter 13. to have, writing 14. to answer, replying 15. to explain, to listen, grumbling 16. offering, to leave, (to) work 17. making, to do 18. having to get up 19. to forget, worrying 20. remaining, to help, to stay 21. to run, to have recovered 22. listening, hearing 23. to learn, reading, listening 24. to start, to wait 25. setting, having been 26. to go 27. to go, (to) try to save, cutting 28. earn, scrubbing, make, blackmailing. 29. discussing, having reached 30. having, to ride 31. (to) leave, meeting, recognize 32. paying 33. to give 34. interrupting, repeating 35. cutting, to go 36. buying, selling 37. giving, to explain 38. asking, telling, to buy 39. to tell, looking 40. to be, to erupt/erupting

31. 1. to ride, to do, coming, to come 2. spending, earning 3. being, to apologize 4. to eat 5. working, spending 6. looking, being 7. posting 8. to lock, go, do 9. to learn, saying 10. trying to interrupt, to wait, talking 11. doing, to move/moving 12. leaving, to go 13. to drink 14. being, to wait 15. trying to make, adding 16. going, stay 17. to look, (to) take, looking, to do 18. getting up, walking 19. listening, listening 20. to make/making, to see 21. doing 22. to put, to prevent, climbing 23. taking, to-eat 24. ringing, asking, to do 25. waiting, to clear, to set 26. repeat, to make, to do 27. leaving, sending, to tow 28. borrowing, asking, to do 29. to offend, annoying 30. to be able to.tell, gazing 31. getting, to walk 32. to ask, to leave

32. 1. trying/answer 2. building 3. passing 4. trying/make

5. having 6. dislike/living 7. winning 8. try/discuss/speaking 9. teaching 10. increasing

34. 1. to accept 2. having 3. going 4. to reach 5. opening

6. leaving 7. to return 8. buying 9. to accept 10. being 11. to be 12. to finish 13. to leave 14. to tell 15. to stop 16. driving 17. to know 18. returning 19. leaving 20. leaving

44. 1. Knowing that he was poor, I offered 2. Having barricaded the windows, we assembled 3. Becoming tired of my com-

I plaints, she turned it off 4. Finding/having found no one at home, he left 5. Hoping to find the will, she searched 6. Having removed all traces of his crime, he left 7. Realizing that he has missed the train, he began 8. Exhausted by his work, he threw 9. Having spent all his money, he decided 10. Having escaped from prison, he looked 11. Having heard the story before, she didn't want 12. Having found the money, they began 13. Entering the room suddenly, she found 14. Turning on the light, I was 15. Having visited the museum, we decided 16. Thinking we were lost, he offered 17. Having found his revolver and loaded it, he sat 18. Realizing that she couldn't move it alone, she asked 19. Having fed the dog, he sat 20. Addressing the congregation, he said

21. Thinking he had made a mistake somewhere, he went

22. Looking/having looked through the fashion magazines, I realize

23. The tree, uprooted by the gale, had fallen 24. People sleeping in the next room were 25. Knowing that the murderer was still at large, I was 26. Having stolen the silver, he looked 27. Soaked to the skin, we reached 28. Sitting/Seated in the front row, and using ... I saw 29. ... sitting by the fire, you will take 30. Knowing that ..., I didn't like 31. Believing that she could trust him, she gave 32. Slates, ripped off by the gale, fell 33. The lion, finding his cage door open and seeing no sign on his keeper, left 34. The government, trying to tax people according to the size of their houses, once put a tax 35. Having heard that the caves were dangerous, I didn't like 36. Wearing extremely fashionable clothes and surrounded by photographers and press men, she swept

45. 1. When leaving a car ... you must leave the brakes 2. As/When I was wading etc or Wading across ... I was swept off my feet by 3. When a tank is being filled/When you are filling a tank 4. Running into the room, she caught her foot on a rug and fell 5. When I read the letter 6. When carrying ... you should never point it 7. When planting ... you must take care 8. In his first race, the horse he was riding fell 9. When paying by cheque, you must show 10. Knowing me to be ... , he was astonished to hear that 11. As he believed that 12. As I passed/ or As/When I was passing 13. When I am reading/When I read 14. As he left 15. I led the dog, barking furiously, out 16. After I had paid my taxes, the amount 17. As I was writing 18. The boat, tied to a post, was being tossed up and down by the sea 19. As the question had been misunderstood, the wrong answer 20. We saw the first star, shining in the sky 21. It is easy to have an accident when one is/you are driving 22. The man saw a notice pinned to the door 23. They read the words "No Entry" written in 24. While he was cleaning his gun it went off 25. When/As I was wondering where to go, an advertisement 26. As I rushed out of the house, a lorry 27. As I sat by the fire, it all came back

28. We thought he would never survive after falling from

29. When a fuse is being changed, the electricity ... or When you are changing a fuse you should switch 30. I saw a trailer with a boat on it being towed behind 31 As he was sitting at the foot ... a stone fell 32. When he drove to work the traffic jams infuriated him 33. As I sat in the dentist's chair an idea 34. I felt sure that ... would kill him, weakened as he was by his last illness 35. A scorpion bit him as he got out of bed

46. 1. beginning to slip/begin to slip/begin slipping, to save, falling 2. falling, trying to keep 3. to lend, taking 4. to open 5. reading, to read 6. to book, to keep, to lose 7. to avoid being, being/to be, waiting 8. to get, to ask 9. making, speak/speaking 10. to win, cheating 11. firing/to fire, graze 12. strike/striking, to get 13. ringing/ring, to be coming to open 14. to go, to give 15. to put, (to) watch, change/changing 16. to see, to avoid hitting 17. to be, crackling 18. climbing, to explain, to say, to let, go 19. convincing, to get, leap 20. driving, doing, to do 21. to sit. (to) hear, howling 22. getting, climbing, to do 23. roar/roaring, to move/moving, waving 24. writing, to do, to go, see 25. walking, to cross, thinking, to chase 26. to be having, thudding 27. getting, to pay 28. to come, standing 29. to like making and flying ... doing 39. to arrive, rising 31. sawing, fall/falling 32. to see/seeing, crying/cry 33. jump/jumping, fall/falling 34. to wake, (to) hear, beating 35. beginning to roll/begin to roll/begin rolling, to do, to stop 36. laughing, slipping/slip

47. 1. living, to like 2. to travel; to take, to go 3. to buy, selling 4. to catch; getting, getting 5. to complain; losing 6. going, being, putting; telling, to take 7. to lock; go, do 8. to touch, being 9. househunting, to ask; looking 10. go; swimming, going 11. to be paid; taking, measuring; to expect, to do, to be, to die 12. spending, arguing, not to go 13. giving, going to live 14. to leave; to call 15. keep you waiting; apologizing 16. telling.

to talk 17. earning, to show 18. to start; filling 19. to carry; to move, carry 20. to take; take; cutting; to get, taking; to saw, escape 21. to ask, to leave; asking Tom to do; asking, to travel 22. to cut; sharpening 23. to buy, to ask 24. cheating, buying, dealing/to deal 25. dining, have; to go; having 26. cutting/to be cut; have, to have 27. to convince, managing, helping

28. travelling, standing; queuing, waiting; to go 29. following, criticizing, to hit 30. to stay; wait; to go 31. to rebel, not to adopt 32. arriving; to wait, waiting; to be 33. to come, going; to climb, making 34. to work, getting 35. start; to risk getting 36. calling, letting, decide

48. 1. sleeping, to camp 2. to come; listening, listening, talking 3. to leave, to put 4. to park 5. smoking, to risk setting, smoke 6. writing, to receive, go 7. buying; shopping 8. to see, to find, buy; trying to travel 9. to turn; working 10. taking, dropping, pretending 11. to grow, buying; to prevent, playing 12. keeping; to fill; asking, to keep; making 13. going; to come; to go, go; travelling 14. go fishing; coming; to cut, wasting, sitting, watching, fishing 15. being, to wait; to see 16. to prevent, rushing, dashing 17. tossing, crashing 18. to eat, trying 19. walking, take; go; to get 20. to start; raining, walking

21. counting, thinking; moving, being robbed; to get, to make

22. letting, keeping, to sell 23. to lean, watching, going, coming; shouting, talking 24. to know, to learn; to greet/greeting, to talk 25. untying, climbing, crawling 26. finding; getting; to know 27. to see/seeing, sitting; relaxing, reading, produce, to be; performing, keeping 28. spending, living, to think, selling, returning

29. arguing; argue; seeing 30. to hear; seeing; to bring 31. receiving, selling; receiving, selling, to sell 32. hovering, being, climbing; run/running; coming/come, leading 33. to be passing, to give, to pick, to drop 34. having; to have; sitting, swirling, taking 35. writing, showing 36. swim; swimming; going

49. 1. You are really guilty of having provoked this fight 2. I was always afraid of losing his benevolence 3. Don't miss an opportunity to see this exhibition 4. Are you quite sure of those words referring to my mother? 5. I could feel her hands shaking when she was putting her coat on 6. He stepped aside for me to pass 7. The expedition is reported to have reached its destination 8. Walter Scott is considered to be the father of historical novel 9. She doesn't seem to want to do anything I suggest 10. His office turned out to be in one of the remote streets of the town 11. She watched him go up the street and enter a house 12. He wanted me to go to India with him 13. I saw a taxi stop by our house 14. It is no use asking him about it 15. They decided against sending him a telegram

50. 1. I have so often known a change of medicine work wonders 2. What makes you think so? 3. Let us be the best friends in the world 4. For about ten days we seemed to have been living on nothing but cold meat and bread 5. I hated the sound of the rain pattering on the roof 6. Having put the car in the garage he remembered that he had had no breakfast 7. I like making people happy 8. Excuse my taking your seat 9. He does not like to be disturbed when writing letters 10. There was a rumour that they were likely to be married at last 11. I don't like you to talk like that 12. He looked at the carpet while waiting for her answer 13. I think everybody looked forward to his coming back 14. Don't forget shutting the windows when you leave home 15. When did you have your hair cut?

51. I.I felt my heart jump 2. The door and window of the room being open, we looked in 3. There is no hope of seeing him soon 4. He heard the town clock strike twelve 5. The lake was rough but I kept on rowing 6. I insist on being treated with respect 7. When left to herself she sat down at the desk to write the article 8. There's nobody here for him to play with 9. She denied having been at the station that night 10. He avoided looking at Sabine 11. You can get your clothes made in Europe

12. He spoke loud enough for you to hear 13. He proved to be an ideal teacher 14. Edith is said to resemble me 15. We count on their coming back after several days 16, I won't have you speak like that! 17. He is said to be good at translating verse 18. I happen to know his phone number 19. He is sure to take part in the expedition in January 20. She couldn't help smiling

52. 1. The first night of the performance was reported to take place on the 9th of August 2. We shan't let you pay no attention to him 3. He appeared to have left the keys at home 4. He didn't want David to live at home 5. Ancient burial places are said to have been found 6. I got him to take off his coat and have cup of tea 7. He is said to have travelled a lot 8. You should have your photo taken by Wednesday 9. He is said to have been working at a new book for a year 10. I'll have Ann help me pack all the

things 11. Mr Osborn wanted his son to marry Emily whose father was very rich 12. This picture is considered to have been painted by Repin 13. Nobody noticed him come in and stop at the door 14. The principal is expected to make a speech at the farewell party 15. Gloomy thoughts didn't let Robert fall asleep that night 16. The Romans are said to have built good roads in England 17. He is likely to have finished working at this book 18. He seems to like the performance 19. He was considered to be one of the most experienced football players in the team 20. They had the guest play the piano 21. He was seen to be running toward the forest 22. When will you have your piano tuned? It is impossible to play it 23. Where have you had your bicycle repaired? 24. This opera company is said to have given some performances in London 25. He heard the clock strike 12 26. The plane is reported to have landed in time 27. They watched him go upstairs and enter the house

53. 1. The woman sitting in the armchair is the editor's wife

2. The man standing at the blackboard is our English teacher

3. The fence surrounding the garden is newly painted 4. I couldn't fall asleep last night because there was a crying baby in the next door room 5. John has bought a used car 6. The police are looking for the stolen car 7. The advertised merchandise was not available at the store 8. The articles written by this political observer are read with great interest all over the world 9. We are discussing the article written by Jack Nelson 10. Don't wake up the sleeping child 11. The child sleeping on the sofa is sick 12. Feeling unwell, Joe decided not to go to work 13. Seeing Nancy, Ann cried with joy 14. Asking me about my summer plans, Mr Smith smiled all of a sudden 15. Being busy, Jack refused the invitation 16. Having read the newspaper, he wrote some business letters

54. 1. John likes studying foreign languages 2. I don't remember having seen such a movie 3. He is fond of playing chess

4. Jack is proud of being among the winners of the contest 5. The children insisted on watching television after dinner 6. I am not interested in listening to her gossips 7. You have no reason for refusing to see Jack 8. My wife does not approve of my fast driving 9. I object to Bob's driving the car 10. I was afraid of missing the train 11. Jack intends to buy a new car 12. I prefer meeting you at Carnegie Hall 13. I would appreciate your calling me back 14. Please excuse me disturbing you 15. I have finished typing a business letter 16. She couldn't help smiling 17. She denies having called Albert 18. Martin avoids meeting us 19. She refrained from mentioning the name of her acquaintances 20. Ann is not capable of doing any harm

55. 1. To take sleeping tablets is harmful 2. Here is the letter to be mailed as soon as possible 3. He is too nervous to drive a car 4. The flight may have been cancelled 5. You must spend more time on your English 6. I would like to have a cup of coffee 7. Let me say a few words 8. Let us be friends 9. Let's stop talking now 10. I heard my neighbours quarrel 11. Have you heard Jane play the piano? 12. I saw him fall 13. I heard him mention your name 14. He made us wait three hours 15. What makes you laugh? 16. You'd better call the doctor 17. You'd better tell your parents the truth 18. I would rather listen to music 19. My wife helped me look for my glasses 20. Help me move that sofa


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