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MODAL VERBS




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  1. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
  2. Adjectives and Adverbs
  3. Adverbs of degree
  4. Change these sentences by changing certain adjectives into verbs.
  5. Comment on the meaning of the modal verbs and translate the sentences into Russian;
  6. COMPOUND VERBS
  7. Conjunctive Adverbs and the Relation They Indicate
  8. CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE VERBS TO HAVE, TO GET
  9. Form the verbs from the nouns and translate them.
  10. Form the verbs from the nouns and translate them.

1. 1. can, could, can't/couldn't 2. will be able to 3. won't be able to 4. can't ... can't or couldn't ... couldn't 5. shall/will be able to 6. will never be able to 7. couldn't, can't 8. will you be able to 9. won't be able to 10. could, couldn't 11. can, can, can't 12. can't, can't/couldn't, can't/couldn't 13. could/was able to 14. was able to 15. could/was able to, couldn't/wasn't able to 16. were able to 17. Were you able to/could you

18. couldn't/wasn't able to 19. was able to 20. were able to

21. could/was able to 22. was able to 23. was able to 24. was able to 25. could/can, could 26. could, couldn't 27. could, couldn't, can't 28. could 29. couldn't/wouldn't be able to 30. couldn't/wouldn't be able to 31. could/can, can't 32. could, could 33. could/can, couldn't/can't 34. couldn't/wouldn't be able to 35. couldn't/wasn't able to, couldn't/wasn't able to 36. could

2. 1. may 2. might 3. may/might 4. may/might 5. might

6. may 7. may 8. might 9. may 10. was allowed to 11. might 12. may 13. may/might 14. may/might, may/might 15. might

16. may 17. may 18. may 19. may/might 20. might 21. might

22. may/might 23. may/might 24. may 25. might 26. may/might 27. might/may 28. may/might 29. may 30. might 31. might 32. may/might 33. may 34. might 35. may/might 36. hasn't been allowed to

3. 1. has to 2. must 3. has to 4. have to 5. must 6. have to

7. had to 8. has to 9. had to 10. have to 11. must 12. will have to/have to 13. must 14. has to 15. must 16. have to 17. have to 18. must 19. must 20. have to 21. had to 22. must 23. have to 24. must 25. has to 26. must 27. will have to 28. must 29. had to

30. have to 31. will have to 32. had to 33. have to 34. must/will have to 35. must 36. have to

4. (Add not to each of the following verbs.} 1. need 2. must 3. must 4. need 5. must 6. must 7. need 8. must 9. need 10. need 11. need 12. must 13. need 14. must 15. must 16. need

17. must 18. must 19. need 20. need 21. must 22. must 23. need 24. must 25. must 26. must 27. need 28. need 29. need 30. need

31. need 32. must 33. need 34. must 35. must 36. need

5. (didn't have to is replaceable by didn't need to.) 1. he doesn't have/hasn't (got) to 2. did you have to 3. I don't have to 4. they will have to 5. we didn't have to 6. we didn't have to 7 you needn't come 8. I never have to 9. shan't/won't have to 10. you needn't 11. shall we have to 12. you don't have to 13. I didn't have to 14. we don't have to 15. have you got to/must u/need you 16. do people have to 17. shall I have to 18. don't have to 19. we didn't have to 20. you needn't 21. we didn't have to 22. do we have to/must we 23. did you have to 24. I didn't have to 25. you won't have to 26. they didn't have to 27. do you nave to/have you got to 28. did you have to/had you to '29. didn't have to 30. shall I have to 31. do you have to/have you got to 32. I didn't' have to 33. do French children have to 34. did you have to 35. I didn't have to 36. did you have to



6. 1. must have been 2. can't/couldn't have been 3. needn't have helped 4. must have left 5. can't/couldn't have escaped 6. needn't have given 7. can't/couldn't have seen 8. must have started 9. can't have been 10. needn't have bought 11. must have been 12. must have borrowed 13. must have stolen 14. needn't have done 15. needn't have said 16. can't/couldn't have understood 17. can't/couldn't have done 18. must have been 19. can't/couldn't have walked 20. can't have been 21. must have been 22. can't/couldn't have had 23. needn't have watered 24. must have taken 25. can't/couldn't have been 26. can't/couldn't have watered 27. must have been 28. needn't have sent 29. needn't have made 30. must have been 31. must have been 32. can't/couldn't have seen 33. can't/couldn't have come 34. needn't have lent 35. needn't have spoken 36. must have fallen



8. 1. we shan't be able to get; 2. we shall be able to give, 3. we were able to take; 4. was able to escape; 5. were able to find; 6. I've been unable or I haven't been able; 7. to be able to show; 8. to be able to speak; 9. they'd been unable to get or they hadn't been able to get; 10. had been unable to answer

9. 1. ..., we could all make notes about the lesson 2. ..., we could go much faster 3. ..., we could visit you more often 4. I could give you more help myself if ... 5. ..., you could have kept to the main roads 6. I could have done something about it if ... 7. ..., we could stay and have coffee with you 8. We could have stayed and had coffee with them if ... 9. ..., we could fix it straight away 10. We could have fixed it there and then if ...

10. 1. She can be quite forgetful 2. Holidays abroad can be quite cheap 3. Racial harmony can be difficult to achieve 4. . , discipline could be very strict 5. He could occasionally be quite high-spirited 6. September can be a wonderful month . 7. Students ... can be very critical ... 8. One-way traffic ... can be very confusing ... 9. She can look quite pretty at times 10. English cooking can, in fact, be excellent



11. 1. You may find; 2. We might (or could) get, 3. He might (or could) change; 4. trains may be; 5. Parents may find; 6. we may find; 7. He may (or might) be able; 8. He may (or might)

not turn up; 9. The government's policy might (or could) prove; 10. Getting ... may (or might) not be

12. 1. We may have missed the bus 2. He might not have wanted to see us 3. They might have gone out for the evening 4. He could have broken a window 5. He may not known the answer 6. They could have guessed what we intended to do 7. He may already have known about it 8. They may have lost their way 9. They may have gone away for a time 10. She could have forgotten your address 11. He may not have had the time 12. He might have changed his mind about it

13. 1. The manager told me I might leave ... if I wanted to 2. His interviewer told him be could put off ... 3. The Customs officer asked if he could see ... 4. The teacher asked the student if he might ask him ... 5. I told my friend he could ... provided he took ... 6. The police inspector asked his colleague if he might see ... he was holding 7. The notice stated that cars might be parked ... 8. The chairman asked the speaker politely if he might interrupt him ... 9. He asked his friend if he might join him 10. The notice stated that visitors might not take photographs ...

14. 1. The restaurant may be expensive, but ... 2. The method may be crude, but ... 3. He may be badly paid, but ... 4. The book may be long, but ... 5. He may be old, but ... 6. The climb may have been exhausting, but ... 7. I may have been rude to him, but ... 8. He may have acted unwisely, but ... 9. His work may have improved, but ... 10. Old-age pensions may have risen considerably, but ...

15. 1. You might let me know ... 2. He might be ... 3. You might perhaps ask him ... 4. You might post this letter ... 5. You might have warned me ... 6. You might have apologized ... 7. He might have tried ... 8. She might keep ...

16. 1. The Conservatives should win ... 2. There should be a lot ... 3. ... says it should be fine ... 4. Our visitors should have arrived ... 5. It shouldn't be too difficult ... 6. The meeting ought to have finished ... 7. The organizers of the games should be meeting ... 8. It shouldn't have taken us so long ... 9. ... regulations shouldn't affect ... 10. We should be able to move ...

17. 1. ... be very much in love with him 2. ... left it in my other jacket 3. ... be rolling in money 4. ... been taken in by his charming manner 5. ... read it very carefully 6. ... be crazy 7. ... received it 8. ... be getting any better 9. ... had a quarrel about

something or other 10. ... forgotten all about it 11. ... be much later ... 12. got to know him very well

18. 1. They will sit ... 2. He will often buy things and then leave ... 3. My wife will leave things ... 4. ..., the water pipes would freeze ..., and we would have to call in ... 5. ... he would interrupt ... 6. ... he would insist ... 7. Why will you be so difficult? 8. ..., everyone would listen ... 9. You will go out ... 10. ., people would go to church ...

19. 1. will do 2. will hold 3. won't work 4. won't fit 5. will seat 6. will reach 7. will suit 8. will bear

20. 1. "I can manage ..., but I shall need ..." 2. "If the price ... increases, we shall be obliged to raise ..." 3. "I shall have more to say about this problem later." 4. "I shall be writing to you ... to let you know ..." 5. "I shall be working ... this evening." 6 "Do you think we shall need to take ...?" 7. "I shan't be sorry to see ..." 8. "I assume I shall be given ..." 9. "We shall never get there, at the rate we're going." 10. "We shall be making ... tomorrow morning,..."

21. 1. belief; 2. characteristic behaviour; 3. request, 4. agreement; 5. prediction/inherent capacity; 6. command/instruction; 7. prediction; 8. characteristic behaviour; 9. prediction; 10. promise; 11. belief; 12. inherent capacity

22. 1. He should cut down on bread and potatoes 2. You should get up earlier 3. We'd better take our seats 4. He shouldn't have been driving so fast 5. I'd better inform the police 6. We'd better get a builder to look at it tomorrow 7. You ought to have stayed in a hotel 8. She shouldn't have lain in the sun so long 9. You'd better start learning some Spanish 10. You'd better think about buying a new one 11. You ought to see a doctor 12. We should have bought more in the first place 13. He ought to change his job instead of complaining 14. You should have taken umbrella with you 15. We'd better ask someone the way 16. You'd better not take the car 17. You'd better get it renewed 18. You should buy yourself an alarm clock 19. I'd better see who it is 20. You'd better phone a plumber

23. 1. factory inspectors recommended that new safety rules should be introduced 2. The judge ordered that the court should adjourn for lunch 3. The Speaker ruled that the MP should withdraw his remark 4. The Colonel decided that his troops should attack at dawn 5. The leader of the expedition proposed that they should make ... held 6. Teachers advocated that more nursery schools should be set up 7. The magistrate directed that the man should be released 8. The police gave instructions that members of the public should not approach the two men but should report to the nearest police station 9. Shareholders demanded that the Board should give more detailed information about profits 10. The employers urged that the men should return to work so that negotiations could begin

24. 1. ... table so that I should be sure... 2. ... undertones so that the teacher shouldn't overhear ... 3. ... warning in order that the public should be ... 4. ... umbrella in case it should rain 5. ... bank lest the house should be burgled 6. Lest you should think I'm ... truth, I have bright ... 7. ... university so that he should have ... 8. ... here so that you should have ... 9. ... hall so that everyone should have ... 10. ... number in case you should want ...

25. 1. It's natural that you should be upset ... 2. It's incredible that we should have been living ... 3. It's a pity that you should have missed ... 4. It's curious that he should have asked ... 5. It's typical of him that he should expect ... 6. It's odd that they should be getting married, ... 7. It's crazy that you should have to ... 8. It is essential that you should look over ... 9. It is important that you should read ... 10. It's splendid that you should be coming . . 11. It's interesting that you should have bought ... 12. It is vital that emergency supplies should reach ...

26. 1. must 2. must 3. must 4. have to 5. had to 6. must 7. must 8. must 9. have to 10. have to 11. must 12. having to or to have to 13. will probably have to 14. must/must 15. must or has to/must or has to 16. have had to 17. mustn't 18. had to 19. must 20. have to

27. 1. ... we must hurry, or we'd be late 2. ... application forms must be returned to the office ... 3. ... he must visit us ... 4. he could never remember ... . He always had to ... 5. ... the car had broken down, and we had to have it ... 6. ... the situation had now become intolerable, and that something must be done ... 7. ... I realized how difficult ... was, but he must try ... get him down 8. ... visas ... must be obtained ... 9. ... I was sorry to have to tell him that, but he left me ... 10. ... it wasn't fair. He always had to do ... 11. ... I really must try ... 12. ... no one liked having (or to have) to work ... 13. ... whichever party ... would probably have to reintroduce ... 14. ... candidates must write ... and must

write ... 15. the verdict... must (or has to or had to) be unanimous; if ..., the case must (or has to or had to) be retried 16. ... the crowd had dispersed peaceably. If ... hadn't, the police might have had to ... 17. ... we mustn't make ... or he wouldn't take ... 18. ... had suddenly taken ..., and she had had to call 19. ...problem cropped up again, he must report ... 20. ... it was to have to make

28. 1. We needn't (or don't need to) leave 2. You don't have to come 3. we need (or need to) take 4. you needn't (or don't need to) decide 5. you don't have to go 6. you don't have to take 7. we shan't have to rush 8. I wouldn't need to keep 9. he's never had to earn 10. you don't have to do/do you 11. I need hardly say 12. You needn't have told 13. this needn't make 14. he had never had to deal 15. we didn't need to do 16. he didn't even have to have 17. you needn't have made 18. he need never discover 19. you needn't (or don't need to) be alarmed 20. I need have gone

29. (should used for obligation is replaced by ought to. may/might in the affirmative is replaceable by could) 1. must have worked/been working 2. needn't have translated 3. may/might have forgotten, should have telephoned 4 may/might have got lost, should have given, may/might have had, wouldn't/couldn't have delayed 5. may/might have stopped and got, may/might have run 6. shouldn't have fed 7. must have been 8. should have gone 9. couldn't have been attacked, must have seen ... and thought 10. must have waited/been waiting (could/may/might could replace must.} 11. may/might have fallen ... and been eaten ... or been kidnapped ... or caught ... and died 12. were to have started 13. needn't have walked, could have come 14. must have been stolen, may/might have driven 15. couldn't have got, must have drunk 16. shouldn't have been riding 17. may/might have taken, may/might have been 18. might/should have told, could have got 19. would have won 20. needn't have written 21. were to have bui't

22. wouldn't/shouldn't have noticed, would/might have spread

23. should/might /could have waited 24. may/might have come, couldn't/can't have come, may/might have come 25. needn't have done 26. should have been 27. needn't have cooked 28. would/should have brought, wouldn't/shouldn't have come 29. shouldn't have thrown, might/could have killed 30. could have painted, could have painted 31. may/might have dropped, may/might have been 32. could have been started, could have been 33. must have carried, couldn't have done, would have been, must have waited 34. needn't have done

35. couldn't/can't have been, must have been walking

36. Couldn't it have been, must have been

30. (See notes to Exercise 29 above.) 1. wouldn't/shouldn't have had 2. should have asked 3. should have been 4. may/might have gone; would have told 5. may/might have kept; wouldn't have kept 6. may/might have gone; may/might have been; would have rung; couldn't have rung 7. must have had; would have been 8. couldn't have bought 9. should have waited 10. couldn't have carried; must have helped 11. couldn't have been; must have been 12. must have crashed; would have reported 13. may/might have blown up; may/might have planted, may/might have had 14. may/might have tried; may/might have been 15. may/might have gone, may/might have been; couldn't have been 16. may/might have collapsed; would have taken over 17. shouldn't have done, should have said 18. must have been 19. needn't have done; should have told; shouldn't/wouldn't have wasted , 20. could have passed; should/could have worked 21. couldn't possibly have opened; couldn't have got 22. must have let; must have followed ... slipped 23. needn't have bought 24. must have drugged ... dumped; might/would have been run; may/might have been 25. must have bribed; may/might have followed; couldn't have done; would/should have seen 26. needn't have stamped 27. couldn't have done; must have given 28. must have been 29. could have taken; may/might have been; may/might have hopped in ... snatched 30. should have told; would/could have lent 31. needn't have taken; could have walked 32. must have been watching/must have watched 33. needn't have rung/shouldn't have rung; could have dialled/should have dialled 34. must have had 35. could have had/might have had; couldn't have had 36. could have married; must have loved; must have been

31. (may/might in the affirmative is replaceable by could. In 1, 7, 10, 20, 23 should is replaced by ought to.) 1. should have been 2. may/might have written, couldn't have written must have fallen 4. may/might have liked 5. must have been

6. needn't have sent 7. might/should have left 8. may/might have been 9. can't/couldn't have been, may/might have been 10. shouldn't have gone 11. may/might have been 12. were to have been 13. should/would have been 14. needn't have carried 15. may/might have been 16. can't/couldn't have been, must have been 17. must have been 18. was to have been 19. would have reached 20. could/should have crossed 21. should have brought 22. may/might have been 23. must have been 24. can't/couldn't have been, must have been 25. may/might not have heard 26. could have put you up 27. would have fallen 28. should have checked 29. needn't have apologized 30. may/might not have realized 31. might/should have thanked 32. was to have gone

32. 1. should have had 2. must have been 3. must have damaged 4. should not have parked 5. must have studied 6. should have studied 7. must have been 8. should have deposited 9. must have forgotten 10. must not have studied

33. 1. I would 2. would have gone 3. may have had 4. should have done 5. must have forgotten 6. may have slept 7. might have had 8. could have lost 9. shouldn't have driven 10. may have run

49. 1. Don't worry. They won't be late. They might be going here and will be here in some minutes 2. When are we to be at the railway station? At 9.00 but you needn't hurry. The train is leaving at 9.30 3. She must have failed to recognize us 4. Can you be still working at this translation? The article is very simple 5. They can't have moved to a new flat 6. The book must be a great success with the readers 7. His speech must have produced a great impression on the audience 8. You must have been informed that the train would be late 9. She should have phoned to her mother to warn her that she might fail to come

50. 1. I can hardly go away and leave you alone 2. What is done cannot be undone 3. She can't have done it! 4. I could come earlier if necessary 5. He may have forgotten his promise 6. You may stay if you choose to 7. You might have brought the book in time 8. You simply must see the exhibition 9. He must be there now 10. This book is a must 11. Shall I get you some more tea' 12. The fine should not be more $20 13. I would not do it for anything 14. You ought to do your duty 15. He ought to have been a doctor 16. Don't you dare touch him 17. As I was to be there at

5. sharp I had to take a taxi 18. They are unlikely to come 19. It might be true 20. Could he have meant it?

51. 1. She may have lost her bag 2. Could you tell me the time, please 3. How old may she be? 4. You may not smoke here 5. I have to get up early 6. You might have offered your help when he got into trouble 7. We must obey the laws 8. You shall pay for this! 9. I would rather stay home 10. You needn't do it, if you don't want to 11. How dare you say such things! 12. You wouldn't know him 13. You ought to have known it 14. That should suit you 15. Shall I wait for you? 16. He must have made a mistake 17. He cannot be a day over forty 18. He could have done it; nobody knows 19. He may have lost his way 20. He could cry for shame


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